Booklet No. 10
Orchard Management: OMS - 1
II. Systems of Planting
III.Laying out for Planting Trees
IV.Calculation of Number of Trees
V.Exercise on the Estimation of Number of Trees
Different designs can be followed for planting fruit trees in a given area. Such designs are explained in this booklet in a simple and lucid style.
Practically all the sections in this book require careful study. However , the reader should try to differentiate between the systems with care before he can lay out on the field. Calculation of the number of saplings of the selected fruit trees is made further clear through an exercise and a ready recknoner.
Dr. K. T. Chandy, Agricultural & Environmental Education
Layout of an orchard is very important. Layout means fixing the position of trees, roads, buildings, etc. in an orchard being planned. There are various systems of layout in an orchard. Systems of layout refer to the design of planting the trees. It is desirable to have the trees planted in a systematic way because: (1) orchard operations like intercultural and irrigation are carried out easily; (2) it makes possible the distribution of areas equally for each tree; (3) it results in maximum utilization of an area according to different kinds of trees; and (4) it makes supervision more easy and effective.
II. Systems of Planting
There are five systems of planting of fruit trees. In all these systems, trees are planted in rows. The distance between row to row and plant to plant varies with the system, type of fruit trees and their varieties. Tress with bigger canopy require greater distance between them and vice versa.
A. Square system
In square system the trees are planted in four corners of a square keeping the same distance between row to row and plant to plant in the same row. This is the simplest and easiest system of plantation. (Appendix Fig.1).
1.Irrigation channels and paths can be made straight.
2.Operations like ploughing, harrowing, cultivation, spraying and harvesting becomes easy. 3.Better supervision of the orchard is possible as one gets a view of the orchard from one end to the other.
1.Comparatively less number of trees are accommodated in given area. 2.Distance between plant to plant and row to row remains the same and , hence, certain amount of space in the middle of four trees is wasted.
B. Rectangular system
In rectangular system the trees are planted in the same way as in a square system except that the distance between row to row will be more than the distance between plant to plant in the same row. Four adjacent trees in this system make a rectangular design. (Appendix Fig.2).
1.Intercultural operations can be carried out easily.
2.Irrigation channel can be made length and breadth wise
3.Light can penetrate into the orchard through the large inter spaces between rows. 4.Better supervision is possible.
5.Intercropping is possible.
1.A large area of the orchard between rows is wasted if intercropping is not practised. 2.Less number of trees are planted.
C. Quincunx or Diagonal system
Basically, quincunx or diagonal system is the same as the square system except for the addition of a tree in the center of each square. In this system, the number of trees planted in the same area is almost double. But the distance between the trees is much reduced. For this reason, trees with shorter life space are chosen for the center. By the time the main trees grow into full size, the central trees will have finished their life cycle. The central trees are known as filler crop and the others as main crop. If the filler crop hinders seriously the growth of main trees, it should be removed Papaya, Guava, Lime, plum and peaches...