Environmental Science Notes

Topics: DNA, Demography, Protein Pages: 6 (993 words) Published: October 14, 2014
Christopher Torres
Environmental Studies
Notes

Chapter 1
Understanding Our Environment
Atmosphere: Air
Hydrosphere: Water (Ice-Cryosphere)
Geosphere: Land
Biosphere: Everywhere you find living thing

Science: ”To know”
A way of knowing following scientific methods that gives you higher chance of objective and accurate answers

Basic Principles of Science
Empiricism: Science is evidence based
Uncertainty/Proof is elusive: Science can’t prove anything Can support hypothesis
Scientific Theory: Hypothesis that supported by many lines of evidence/ Not contradicted Repeatability: being able to repeat
Parsimony: Fragile/ If they’re multiple explanation of a natural phenomenon we accept the simplest Testable Questions: There has to be a way of testing the hypothesis

History of Conservation & Environmentalism
1864 George P. Marsh published “Man & Nature”
March 1, 1872 Yellowstone National Park was established first national park John Moir 1st president of Sierra Club

Current Environmental Conditions
Half of the world’s wet land were lost in the last ten years Wetlands: Ecological services/ present floods, recharge ground water, removes excess nutrients from water (nitrate, phosphate). Provides habitats for wildlife for endemic species, fisheries, produces oxygen, resting areas for migratory birds Land conservation and logging have shrunk the world’s forest by as much as 50% Soil Degradation has affected two thirds of the worlds agriculture lands in the last 50 years Major problems with environmental condition is population

Major causes of Environmental Degration
Human population growth
Resource consumption
Human Dimensions of Environmental Science
More than 1.3 billion people line in acute poverty, with an income of less than a $1(US) per day Four of five people live in what would be considered poverty in industrialized countries

Chapter 4
Human Population
Demography: Vital statistics about people, such as births & deaths

Fertility & Birth Rates
Fertility: the actual production of offspring
Fecundity: physical ability to reproduce
Zero population growth (zpg) Births + Immigration: death
Crude birth rate: number of births per year per thousand people Total fertility rate: The average number of children that would be born Life Expectancy: average age that a modern infant can expect to attain in any given society A population growing by natural increase has more young people than does a stationary population Dependency Ratio: if current trends continue trends continue by 2100 the medium age in the U.S will by 60 United States: declining working population is supporting a growing number of retired people The 4 Factors to Stabilize population

1. The widespread education of girls
2. The Social & Political empowerment of women
Participate in the decisions of their families, communities and nations 3. High child survival rates
4. The ability of women to determine the number and spacing of their children

Chapter 2
Atoms Molecules & Cells
-To understand our environment, it’s important to understand the basics of: Matter: Anything that has mass& occupies space
Energy: Capacity to do work
-To understand matter we need to know:
Atom: Smallest particle of a substance that has all the properties of that substance; usually unstable ~ O atom of oxygen: very unstable ~O2 molecules of oxygen: very stable Molecules: Made of more than one atom, very stable

1. O2 H2 N2: All the atoms are the same type Element
2. H2O NH3 CH4: Different types of atoms Compound
Water is a unique compound
-Positive charged particles= Protons
-Negatively charged= Electrons
-Neutral particles= Neutral
Weak attract between [+] end of one molecule and [-] end of another molecule is H-bond -Good electrical conductor
-Water has high specific heat
-Stays liquid over a large of temperature
-Universal solvent: anything polar substance dissolves in water
EX)~Polar: salt, sugar
~Non-Polar: oil,...
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