Environmental Issues

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Environmental Issues,
Their Causes, and Sustainability
Living More Sustainably
* Environmentally Sustainable Society
- satisfies the basic needs of its people into the indefinite future * Food
* Clean Water
* Clean Air
* Shelter
World Population

Economic Growth
refers to an increase in the capacity to provide people with goods and services. Economic growth is measured by a country’s Gross National Product (GNP or GNI) * Market value ($) of all goods and services produced within and outside a country during a year plus net income earned abroad by a countries citizens

Other Economic Indicators
* Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
market value ($) of all goods and services produced within a country during a year * Gross World Product (GWP)
market value ($) of all goods and services produced in the world during a year

Economic Growth
* Per Capita GNP
* GNP divided by total population at mid-year
Economic Development
* Positive Aspects
* Global life expectancy has doubled
* Infant mortality has dropped
* Food production has outpaced population growth
* Access to safe drinking water has increased.
* Negative Aspects
* Average life expectancy in developing countries is 11 years less than in developed countries * Infant mortality is 8x higher
* Harmful environmental effects of industrialized food production may limit future food production * Air and water pollution are high in most developing countries * Natural resources are being used unsustainably

Globalization – we are living in an increasingly integrated world * Economic indicators
* Global economy grew
* International trade grew
* Corporation operating in multiple countries grew
* Information and Communication
* 1 in every 11 people in the world have Internet access * Environmental Effects
* Number of diseases transmitted across international * Pollution transported globally
Resources
* Perpetual
* Renewed continuously
* Renewable
* Replenished rapidly
* Non-renewable
* Exist in a fixed quantity

Pollution
What is Pollution?
* Any addition to air, water, soil, or food that threatens the health, survival, or activities of humans or other living organisms
Where do pollutants come from?
* Point Sources – single identifiable sources
* Smokestack
* Drainpipe
* Exhaust pipe
* Nonpoint sources – dispersed sources
* Runoff from fields
* Pesticides sprayed in the air
What are the effects of pollutants?
a) Disruption of life-support systems for humans and other species. b) Damage to wildlife, human health, and property.
c) Nuisances such as noise, and unpleasant smells, tastes, and sights
Dealing With Pollution
* Prevention (Input Control)
* Refuse
* Replace
* Reduce
* Reuse
* Recycle
Cleanup (Output Control)
* Temporary
* Shifts problem somewhere else
* Costly
Environmental and Resource Problems
Major Problems
* Air Pollution
* Water Pollution
* Biodiversity Depletion
* Food Supply
* Waste Production
Air Pollution
Global climate change
Stratospheric ozone depletion
Urban air pollution
Acid deposition
Outdoor pollutants
Indoor pollutants
Noise
Biodiversity Depletion
Habitat destruction
Habitat degradation
Extinction
Food Supply Problems
Overgrazing
Farmland loss
and degradation
Wetlands loss
and degradation
Overfishing
Coastal pollution
Soil erosion
Soil salinization
Soil waterlogging
Water shortages
Groundwater depletion
Loss of biodiversity
Poor nutrition
Waste Production
Solid waste
Hazardous waste
Water Pollution
Sediment
Nutrient overload
Toxic chemicals
Infectious agents
Oxygen...
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