ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION AND ITS EFFECT ON INDIAN ECONOMY
The environmental problems in India are growing rapidly. The increasing economic development and a rapidly growing population that has taken the country from 300 million people in 1947 to more than one billion people today is putting a strain on the environment, infrastructure, and the country’s natural resources. Industrial pollution, soil erosion, deforestation, rapid industrialization, urbanization, and land degradation are all worsening problems. Overexploitation of the country's resources be it land or water and the industrialization process has resulted environmental degradation of resources. Environmental pollution is one of the most serious problems facing humanity and other life forms on our planet today. India's per capita carbon dioxide emissions were roughly 3,000 pounds (1,360 kilograms) in 2007, according to the study. That's small compared to China and the U.S., with 10,500 pounds (4,763 kilograms) and 42,500 pounds (19,278 kilograms) respectively that year. The study said that the European Union and Russia also have more emissions than India.
India is now world's third biggest carbon dioxide emitting nation after China and the US. The new emission data from the United Nations published in early October 2010 is a probable cause of worry for India's climate negotiators at the next round of talks that started in Tianjin in China on October 11, where rich countries are expected to ask India and China to take legally binding emission cuts after 2012, when present global climate treaty expires. Environment Minister Jairam Ramesh said the country could not have high economic growth and a rapid rise in carbon emissions now that the nation was the number three emitter after China and US. India and US clean energy pact: India and the U.S. on November 8, 2010 inked an agreement to establish a bilateral energy cooperation programme to promote clean and energy-efficient businesses, Indian and U.S. companies inked joint venture deals worth $175 million in the renewable energy sector. The US President Barack Obama and Prime Minister Manmohan Singh announced the setting up of Joint Clean Energy Research and Development Centre. The proposed centre is part of the Partnership to Advance Clean Energy (PACE), which forms the core of the “green partnership”. Funding for the centre is expected from national budgets and the private sector. Each government proposes to commit $25 million over the next five years.. A Comprehensive environmental assessment of industrial clusters, undertaken by IIT Delhi and the CPCB, found that the environmental pollution levels in 10 major industrial hubs had reached a “very alarmingly high” level. The World Bank Group has sanctioned two loans worth around Rs1,185 crore for environment management projects in India on July 22, 2010. Of this, Rs897crore will go for the Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) project and the remaining for Capacity Building for Industrial Pollution Management project.
As we know Broadly, environment may be divided into four major elements --- a) Land, b) Water, c) Air and d) Living organism. Environmental degradation occurs in various ways and pollution of air, water , land is alarmingly moving northwards. LAND AND SOIL DEGRADATION
Land is the most threatened resource in India. In 1980, the union ministry of agriculture admitted that 175 million hectares of the total landmass, ie 53 per cent of the total area, is degraded to some extent. In 1994, Sehgal and Abrol placed this figure higher at 187.2 million hectares, of which 162.4 million hectares are degraded by water and wind erosion and 21.7 million hectares by salinity and waterlogging. The remaining 4 million hectares are affected by the depletion of nutrients. According to the National Remote Sensing Agency and Forest Survey of India, 80 million hectares of the 142 million hectares under cultivation are...