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Monthly Project

By-R.Satish Kumar


Sr. No.| Title| Page No.|
1| Environment| 1|
2| Atmosphere| 3|
3| Hydrosphere| 8|
4| Lithosphere| 13|
5| Biosphere| 21|
6| Interdependence Between The Four Spheres| 26|
7| Human Impact On The Environment| 32|


The geographical conditions that surrounds the man on the earth is known as environment. The landforms, water, climate, natural vegetation, minerals, etc. are natural phenomena. These comprise the physical environment. In order to fulfill his requirements, man has made a number of changes in natural environment. The man-made features such as agriculture, buildings, roads, settlements, dams, etc. are considered as cultural environment.

Four Parts of Environment
1. Atmosphere :- The atmosphere is a mixture of nitrogen (78%), oxygen (21%), and traces (remaining 1%) of carbon dioxide, argon, water vapor and other components. Although the atmosphere is approximately 1,100 km high, the stratosphere (10 to 50 km) and the troposphere (less than 10 km) are the main atmospheric interactors of the biosphere. The atmosphere is a prime mean for the spatial diffusion of pollutants and a temporary mean of their accumulation.

2. Hydrosphere :- The hydrosphere is the accumulation of water in all its states (solid, liquid and gas) and the elements dissolved it in (sodium, magnesium, calcium, chloride and sulphate). 97% of the water forms the oceans, 2% is ice (north and south poles) and 1% forms rivers, lakes, ground water and atmospheric vapor. It covers around 71% of the earth's surface and is an important accumulator of pollutants and a significant vector of diffusion.

3. Lithosphere :- The lithosphere is the thin crust between the mantle and the atmosphere. Although the lithosphere is around 100 km thick, only 1 km of it can be considered in interaction with the biosphere. Main constituents are oxygen (47%), silicon (28%), aluminum (8%), iron (5%), calcium (4%), sodium (3%), potassium (3%) and magnesium (2%) in a crystalline state. The lithosphere is the main source of pollutants and a permanent accumulator. Some are naturally released through sources like volcanic eruptions, while others like fossil fuels are the result of artificial extraction and combustion.

4. Ecosphere (Biosphere):- The ecosphere is the set of all living organisms, including animals and vegetal. They are temporary accumulators (like lead) and sources for pollutants (natural forest burning) in a very complex set of relationships with the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere.

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Earth's atmosphere is a layer of gases surrounding the planet Earth and retained by the Earth's gravity. It contains roughly 78% nitrogen and 21% oxygen, trace amounts of other gases, and water vapor. This mixture of gases is commonly known as air. The atmosphere protects life on Earth by absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation and reducing temperature extremes between day and night. The atmosphere has no abrupt cut-off. It slowly becomes thinner and fades away into space. There is no definite boundary between the atmosphere and outer space. Three-quarters of the atmosphere's mass is within 11 km of the planetary surface. In the United States, persons who travel above an altitude of 50.0 miles (80.5 km) are designated as astronauts. An altitude of 120 km (75 mi or 400,000 ft) marks the boundary where atmospheric effects become noticeable during re-entry. The Karman line, at 100 km (62 mi), is also frequently used as the boundary between atmosphere and space. The evolution of the Earth's atmosphere

The history of the Earth's atmosphere prior to one billion years ago is...
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