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Reference Section
Literary Terms Handbook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R1 Language Handbook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R18 Troubleshooter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R18 Troublesome Words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R33 Grammar Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R44 Mechanics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R51 Spelling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R59

Writing Handbook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R62 The Writing Process. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R62 Writing Modes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R66 Research Paper Writing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R68 Business and Technical Writing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R76

Communications Skills Handbook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R78 Using Electronic Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R78 Study and Test-Taking Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R80

Reading Handbook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R86 Vocabulary Development. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R86 Comprehension Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R87 Literary Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R92 Analysis and Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R92

Writing Workshop Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R94 Narrative Writing: Historical Narrative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R94 Personal Writing: Reflective Essay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R96 Descriptive Writing: Travel Article . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R97 Persuasive Writing: Essay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R98 Expository Writing: Analyzing a Poem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R99 Business Writing: Problem-Solution Proposal . . . . . . . . . . . R100 Persuasive Writing: Editorial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R101 Creative Writing: Poem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R102 Narrative Writing: College Application. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R103 Narrative Writing: Dramatic Scene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R104 Persuasive Writing: Speech . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R105 Expository Writing: Research Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R106 Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R108 Index of Authors and Titles . . R141 Spanish Glossary. . . . . . . . . . R119 Index of Art and Artists . . . . . R145 Index of Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . R129

Literary Terms Handbook
A
Abstract language Language that expresses an idea or intangible reality, as opposed to a specific object or occurrence or a concrete reality. The Declaration of Independence uses such abstract language as safety, happiness, prudence, and laws of nature. See also CONCRETE LANGUAGE.

Ambiguity The expression in a single term or passage of more than one meaning. The richness of literary language lies in its ability to evoke multiple layers of meaning. The title of Richard Wilbur’s poem “The Beautiful Changes” is intentionally ambiguous. Analogy A comparison to show similarities between two things that are otherwise dissimilar. Writers often use an analogy to explain something unfamiliar by comparing it to something familiar. See page 91. See also METAPHOR, SIMILE.

Act A major unit of a drama, or play. Many modern dramas have two or three acts. A short drama may have only one act. Acts may comprise one or more scenes. See page 908. See also DRAMA, SCENE.

Anecdote A brief account of an interesting event. An anecdote may be used to...
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