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The environment can be defined as the surroundings in which we live. These surroundings may be living (biotic) or non living (abiotic). There is a dynamic equilibrium between biotic and abiotic environment. We are influenced in our day to day activities by the environment. We in turn affect the environment by our activities, by consuming its natural resources and producing pollution. Pollution is the mixing of undesirable elements in any of the natural resources. For example when we mix the human excreta with water and produce sewage and dispose it in the river we pollute the river. There are many indices of designating and measuring this pollution like Biochemical Oxygen Demand, etc. Now this pollution degrades the quality of water. Water, fit for drinking is the second most important requirement (first is the air) for human beings. It must have some useful ingredients and must not have the pollutants. Actually Environmental Engineering is a very broad subject, but its basic knowledge is compulsory for every engineer. Some of the knowledge can be obtained by doing some simple experiments to judge the quality of water and wastewater and that is why the laboratory analysis of Environmental Engineering has been recommended for the first year students of all branches in Engineering in the esteem Technical University of Rajasthan. This manual covers the syllabus of Rajasthan Technical University. This laboratory Manual has been designed to cater the fundamental knowledge of a part of environmental engineering i.e. water and waste water. To understand the significance of the experiment some theory has been included before the experiment. Then the comments give the overall aspect and in the end the student has to critically comment on the results of the experiment that why this result is there and what is the meaning of it. This is the most important part of the experiment and the evaluator must evaluate the work in light of this. The requirement of the apparatus and the reagents etc. and how to make them in the laboratory, simplifies the work of the institution. The students are advised to prepare the solutions by themselves afresh to have the complete knowledge and good results.
Though there are so many tests for examination of water and wastewater actually Total dissolved solids, Chlorides, Fluorides and Nitrates are the main chemical examinations for acceptance or rejection of a water source as source of supply for a community. As disinfection is a must, so microbiological examination is done after the treatment of water to be supplied. The microbiological examination is difficult, time taking and beyond the scope of this primary level of First year B.Tech. students. However the test of residual chlorine makes it possible indirectly. If there is required amount of residual chlorine then it is assumed that there are no bacteria. Determination of sulfate is necessary to find whether the water is fit for construction (concrete) purpose or not. The dissolved oxygen in sewage directly leads to the determination of BOD of sewage. The determination of dissolved and settelebale solids gives idea about the design of grit chamber and the offensiveness of the sewage. So the manual on Environmental Engineering Laboratory provides a...
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