Entrepreneurship

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1. Research Design

My study is to quantitatively review entrepreneurship in Public Sector in Malaysia by evaluating the entrepreneurship behaviours of the staffs and the factors that encourage the corporate entrepreneurship activities in public sector.

2. Theoretical Construct

3. Instrument and measurement of theoretical constructs

3.1Entrepreneurship Behaviour

This study will use twelve items questionnaire to collect data. Ten items (Q1-Q10) were based on the study of Pearce et al. (1997, p. 132) and another two items for Supportive Context is based on study by Zampetakis and Moustakis (2007). Responses to the items were made on a 7-point scale ranging from “strongly disagree” (1) to “strongly agree” (7). The details of the twelve items are given in Appendix I.

3.2 Corporate Entrepreneurship Environment

This study will use Corporate Entrepreneurship Assessment Instrument (CEAI) that was developed by Hornby et al. (2002) to assess corporate entrepreneurship environment in public sector in Malaysia. CEAI was developed to gauge the organizational factors that foster corporate entrepreneurial activity within a company. The most widely acknowledged of corporate entrepreneurship dimensions appear to fall into five distinctive areas: management support; organizational structure; risk taking, time availability; and reward and resource availability. These five areas, therefore, constituted the theoretical basis for the 84 items generated for the CEAI.

The questionnaire used Likert-type scales with 1 representing strongly disagree to 5 representing strongly agree. Eleven items were negatively worded to avoid response tendencies by the subjects (Cooper and Emory, 1995) and they were reverse-scored for the analysis. The complete list of items can be found in Appendix 2.

3.3 Demographic Variables

In addition, the survey instrument also contained eight demographic variables, namely: (1) Agency of employment.
(2) Sex.
(3) Educational level.
(4) Number of years in public service.
(5) Number of years previous employment in the private sector. (6) Directorate of employment.
(7) Age.
(8) Department head label (yes or no).

4.Hypotheses

4.1Entrepreneurial Behaviour

H1Staffs that possess strong entrepreneurial quality will promote corporate entrepreneurship. H1.1Staff that has the ability to cut red tape shows strong entrepreneurial behaviour. H1.2Staff that possesses employee change orientation shows strong entrepreneurial behaviour. H1.3Staff that possesses employee strategic vision shows strong entrepreneurial behaviour. H1.4Staff that can create an energetic working environment shows strong entrepreneurial behaviour. H1.5Staff that working in supportive environment shows strong entrepreneurial behaviour.

4.2Corporate Entrepreneurship Environment

H2The existence of internal organization factors will encourage staff behaviour toward corporate entrepreneurship. H2.1The organization that encourages innovation will get higher entrepreneurship activities. H2.2The organization that gives autonomy to the employees to make decision will get higher entrepreneurship activities. H2.3 The organization that provides reward and reinforcement to the employees will get higher entrepreneurship activities. H2.4 The organization that provide right amount of time to the employees to do the job will get higher entrepreneurship activities. H2.5The organization that has clear organizational boundaries will get higher entrepreneurship activities.

5.Sample

Participants in this study are public sectors staffs that rank from lower middle manager to higher middle manager that directly involve entrepreneurship development activities such as entrepreneurial training, technical assistance, capital financing, consulting services, promotion and marketing.

Data will be collected from two separate samples that consist of 200 and 1150 middle managers,...
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