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nbCesare Beccaria (1738 – 1794)

Beccaria was a literate and a philosopher, a jurist and an economist, and above all- one of the most important exponents of the Italian Enlightenment. At the plaza which is named after him there is a statue in his honour. He was born in Milan into an old noble family. He graduated in law and spent his life in Milan were he frequented the "Accademia dei Pugni", environment culturally rich and very fashionable, collaborating also with the famous newspaper "Il Caffé". With the help of Pietro Verri, one of the founders of the academia, in 1764 he reached to write and publish in less than a year his most famous work, "On Crimes and Punishments", which is also one of the most significant works of this period of important cultural transformations. His book had a great success in the whole Europe, and especially in France, where he began to travel after an invitation by French Intelluctuals. But he did not fit in this kind of life and he always returned to Milan, where he spent the rest of his life and where he later died in 1794. Cesare Beccaria was one of the most important catalysts and supporters of the reform movement against continental criminal law which was characterized all over Europe for its extreme cruelty and lack of reason; he had also an important role in the widely spread Enlightenment Reform of XVIII century, inspired in the ideals of autonomy, enfranchising and war against oppressors.

The imagination in a mathematician who creates makes no less difference than in a poet who invents…. Of all the great men of antiquity, Archimedes may be the one who most deserves to be placed beside Homer. Jean le Rond d’Alembert  

— Discours Preliminaire de L’Encyclopedie

1. “Liberty is the right to do what the law permits.” -Montesquieu

2. All wealth is the product of labor.
John Locke
This means that if you want to be wealthy (in body, mind or soul) you have to work hard. There is no way you can get what you want...
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