ADEWUNI STEPHEN OLADAPO
BEING A Ph.D SEMINAR PAPER PRESENTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF MANAGEMENT EVOLUTION, THEORIES AND THOUGHTS (MGS 911 – 912)
PROF. A.U. INEGBENEBOR
DEPARTMENT OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION, FACULTY OF MANAGEMENT SCIENCES, UNIVERSITY OF BENIN, BENIN CITY MAY, 2010
Enhancing The Operations Of Organisations Through Organisational Structure
ADEWUNI STEPHEN OLADAPO
The quality service delivery has been of great concern to organizations and public corporations. This can only be achieved through an effective organizational structure. This paper therefore examines the relevant factors to be considered in selecting an effective organizational structure. It spotlights what organization and organizational structure entail. It stresses on the various ways of categorizing organizational structure. The position of organizational structure in the operations of organisations is thoroughly appraised in concluding this paper. Keywords: Organization and Organizational Structure.
ORGANISATION AND ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE
According to Wikipedia (2010), an Organization is a social arrangement which pursues collective goals, controls its own performance and has a boundary separating it from its environment. The word Organization is derived from Greek word “organon” and can be categorized as follows (Robbins and Judge - 2007); ➢ Process-related Organization: An entity is being organized or re-organized i.e. organization as a task or an action. ➢ Functional Organization: Organization as a function of how entities, businesses and state authorities are used i.e. organization as permanent structure. ➢ Institutional Organization: An entity is an organization i.e. organization as an actual purposeful structure within a social context. Schein (1970:9) in his own view defines Organization as the rational co-ordination of the activities of a number of people for the achievement of some common explicit purpose or goal, through a hierarchy of authority and responsibility. This supports an earlier definition that describes an organization as ‘a system of consciously coordinated activities or forces of two or more persons’ (Barnard, 1938:73). It is also defined as a collectivity of people or human groupings deliberately constructed and reconstructed to seek goals (Etzioni 1964:3). From these definitions, it could be deduced that Organization is a social system of rationally coordinated activities of groups of people deliberately constructed and reconstructed to seek the achievement of common goals. However, a critical look at the key elements of these definitions- coordination of activities, constructed or reconstructed hierarchy of authorities and working towards the achievement of common goals, has led to the identification of another concept of organization which is organizational structure. Organizational Structures developed from an ancient time of hunters and collectors in tribal organizations through highly loyal and clerical power structures to industrial structures and today’s post-industrial structures(Grant, 2008) According to Bized (2006), an organizational structure is a mainly hierarchical concept of subordination of activities of individuals that collaborate and contribute to serve one common aim. An organization can be structured in many different ways and styles, depending on their objectives and ambiance. The structure of an organization will determine the modes in which it operates and performs (Wikipedia,2010). Bized (2006) advances reasons to have a structure in an organization. The view was that all businesses have to organize what they do. It is a clear structure that makes it easier to see which part of the business does what.