G. Misikova – Linguistic stylistics
I. R. Galperin- Stylistics
Crystal D. and Davy D. – Investigating English Style / for non-literary styles
Style and Styleme
Štylistika je náuka o výbere a spôsobe využívania jazykových a mimojazykových alebo umeleckých prostriedkov a postupov uplatňovaných v procese použitia komunikácie.
Jazykový štýl je spôsob prejavu, ktorý vzniká cieľavedomým výberom, zákonitým usporiadaním a využitím jazykových a mimojazykových prostriedkov so zreteľom na tematiku, situáciu, funkciu, autorov zámer a obsahové zložky prejavu.
Štyléma prvok, pomocou ktorého sa štylizuje, napr. slovo, veta alebo časť celku/ textu, ktorý má takú výrazovú podobu, že pri štylistickej typológii textu signalizuje jeho zameranie, napr. vulgarizmus v humornom texte.
Style is a coherent, recurring set of expected features, which identify style of an individual or a larger, recognizable group. Style can as well be a variation in a person’s speech or writing and normally varies from formal to casual according to the type of situation, the person or person’s address, the location, the topic discussed etc. Some linguists use the term variety other register.
Native speaker has intuitive knowledge about linguistics appropriateness, foreign learners have no intuitive sense about linguistic appropriateness or weaker or no awareness of conformity, because they haven’t grown up in a relevant linguistics environment.
Aim of stylistics is to study the varieties of a language in as much detail as possible, so that we can point to the formal linguistics features, which characterize them and understand the restrictions on their use.
3 practical aims in the stylistics:
1. To identify and analyse language habits and those features of language, which are restricted to certain kinds of social contexts. 2. To explain, why these features have been used as opposed to other alternatives 3. To classify these features to categories based on the view of their function.
Stylistics is a kind of roof of all levels of language, it is closely related to graphitic and graphology. Graphitic is the study of written or printed shape and graphology the study of the system. Colour, type, size of text can be stylistically relevant, even punctuation.
Stylistics and phonetics – the tone voice of a sermon man is different of TV advertisement, and different from businessmen.
Stylistics and phonology - the suprasegmental features can as well report a degree of stylistic significance, like falling intonation for embarrassment or hesitation.
Stylistics and morphology – the distinctive use of plural for exaggeration for example or the use of demonstratives in a derogatory function.
Stylistics and syntax – in change of word order which doesn’t mean error, but stylistic significance:
He was angry. Vs. Angry he was. – intensified
Repetition is always accompanied by rhythm.
Stylistics and lexicology- in texts there are a lot of words, which don’t carry only pure meaning, but another added as well:
Weakling – slaboch: -ling as suffix bears expressiveness; is closely related to stylistic significance. Other examples:
Neutral thin, positive willowy and negative skinny.
Stylistics and semantics – jokes based on homonymy or homophony, the use of pun is always stylistic signification.
Our tasks throughout the semester:
1. The investigation of the inventory of special language media, which secure the desirable effect of the utterance. These media are called expressive means EM and stylistic devices SD.
When dealing with them, we will focus on the aesthetic function of language on the synonymous ways of rendering one and the same idea, emotional colouring in language or the interrelation between language and thought. EM s and SD s we shall study on phonetic, syntactic and lexical level.
2. - study certain types of texts, which...