English Spoken Language Features

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Grice’s Maxims

Quantity [don’t say too much or too little];
Relevance [keep to the point];
Manner [speak in a clear, coherent and orderly way]; Quality [be truthful]

Grice’s Maxims

Quantity [don’t say too much or too little];
Relevance [keep to the point];
Manner [speak in a clear, coherent and orderly way]; Quality [be truthful]

Filler

Items which do not carry conventional meaning but which are inserted in speech to allow time to think, to create a pause or to hold a turn in conversation. Also called voiced pause.

Filler

Items which do not carry conventional meaning but which are inserted in speech to allow time to think, to create a pause or to hold a turn in conversation. Also called voiced pause.

False start

This is when the speaker begins an utterance, then stops and either repeats or reformulates it. Sometimes called self- correction.

False start

This is when the speaker begins an utterance, then stops and either repeats or reformulates it. Sometimes called self- correction.

Ellipsis

The omission of part of a grammatical structure. The verb ‘are’ and the pronoun ‘I’ are missed out. The resulting ellipsis conveys a more casual and informal tone.

Ex “You going to the party?” / “Might be.”

Ellipsis

The omission of part of a grammatical structure. The verb ‘are’ and the pronoun ‘I’ are missed out. The resulting ellipsis conveys a more casual and informal tone.

Ex “You going to the party?” / “Might be.”

Elision

The omission or slurring [eliding] of one or more sounds or syllables

Ex. gonna = going to; wannabe = want to be; wassup = what is up

Elision

The omission or slurring [eliding] of one or more sounds or syllables

Ex. gonna = going to; wannabe = want to be; wassup = what is up

Discourse marker

Words and phrases which are used to signal the relationship and connections between utterances and to signpost that what is said can be followed by the listener or reader

Ex. ‘first’, ‘on the other hand’, ‘now’, ‘what’s more’, ‘so anyway’.

Discourse marker

Words and phrases which are used to signal the relationship and connections between utterances and to signpost that what is said can be followed by the listener or reader

Ex. ‘first’, ‘on the other hand’, ‘now’, ‘what’s more’, ‘so anyway’.

Contraction

A reduced form often marked by an apostrophe in writing

Ex. Can’t=Cannot, She’ll=She will

Contraction

A reduced form often marked by an apostrophe in writing

Ex. Can’t=Cannot, She’ll=She will

Dialect

The distinctive grammar and vocabulary which is associated with a regional or social use of a language.

Dialect

The distinctive grammar and vocabulary which is associated with a regional or social use of a language.

Deixis/ Deictics

Words which refer backwards or forwards or outside a text – a sort of verbal pointing. Very much a context dependent feature of talk.

Ex. “this”, “that”, “here”, “there”.

Deixis/ Deictics

Words which refer backwards or forwards or outside a text – a sort of verbal pointing. Very much a context dependent feature of talk.

Ex. “this”, “that”, “here”, “there”.

Back-channel

Words, phrases and non-verbal utterances used by a listener to give feedback to a speaker that the message is being followed and understood.

Ex “I see”, “oh”, “uh huh”, “really”

Back-channel

Words, phrases and non-verbal utterances used by a listener to give feedback to a speaker that the message is being followed and understood.

Ex “I see”, “oh”, “uh huh”, “really”

Adjacency Pairs

Parallel expressions used across the boundaries of individual speaking turns. They are usually ritualistic and formulaic socially.

Ex. “How are you?” “Fine thanks.”

Adjacency Pairs

Parallel expressions used across the boundaries of individual speaking turns. They are usually ritualistic and formulaic socially.

Ex. “How are you?” “Fine thanks.”

Accent

The ways in which words...
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