English Segment 1 Study Guide

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Segment 1 Guided Note-taking  Sheet
I.Laughter
Pun 
a.Definition
Play in words
b.Example
Writing with a broken pencil is pointless

Malapropism
a.Definition
misusing words ridiculously
b.Example

Listen to the blabbing brook
Understatement
a.Definition
A figure of speech making a statement less or more important than it really is.  b.Example
Its sprinkling outside when its actually poring rain.

Oxymoron
a.Definition
Words that conflict each other
b.Example
Chewy like a solid but juicy like a liquid

Verbal Irony
a.Definition
When someone says one thing but means another.
b.Example
Saying "Yeah, Right" when you mean no

Situational Irony
a.Definition
an outcome that turns out to be very different from what was expected b.Example
A couple appears in court to finalize a divorce, but during the proceeding, they remarry instead.

Dramatic Irony
a.Definition
The meaning of the situation is understood by the audience but not by the characters b.Example
Romeo and Juliet 

Hyperbole
a.Definition
obvious and intentional exaggeration
b.Example
I’ve told you a million times

2.What 3 questions does a theme of a text answer? 
what is the text about?
What message does the writer give to the reader?
How does the writer feel about the subject?

3.According to the lesson, the goals of irony are 
·to poke fun at human institutions like government or education, or at human weaknesses like greed, jealousy, or impatience ·to promote change and improve humanity 

4.Verbal irony is similar to sarcasm, though its goal may not be to harm or insult. 

5.Define the following root words:
mal/male:  Bad
 hyper: Too much
hypo: Under
phil: Love, friend
 rid/ris: Laugh
crat/cracy: Rule, government
ac/acr: Keen, sharp
anthro/andr:  Man, Human
mis/mit: Send
vid/vis: See

II.Obstacles

1.According to Lesson 1, what are the 8 reasons authors write (their purpose)? The first 2 are given to you: ·to amuse and entertain
·to explore an issue
·to  persuade
·to  inform
·to be  creative
·to learn
·to teach

2.to reflect on and experience

3.Historical context refers to the cultural details of the story and where and when the story takes place, in which  a story occurs. 

4.Why is it important to consider the historical context of a text?

5.Define these elements of fiction:
·Plot : The story line or action and events in a story
·Conflict : The main struggle or many struggles a character faces. ·Setting : The location and time where a story takes place ·Characters : The individuals in a work of fiction
·Point of View : The angle or perspective from which the narrator tells the story ·Theme : The meaning of the work or the life lesson that readers should learn as a result of reading the story. 

6.We know a lot of information about well-developed characters, but author’s don’t give us much information on flat characters.

Plot Structure (6-10)

7.The beginning introduces us to the characters and setting of the story.

8.The Rising action is where conflict is developed.

9.The climax is usually the turning point in the story – the point of greatest emotional intensity. 

10.The falling action  comes right after the climax. 

11.The resolution is where the outcome of the conflict is revealed (also called the denouement). 

12.In first person point of view, the narrator is a character and participates in the action. 

13.In the objective point of view, the narrator is detached from the story and lets the reader supply the meaning.

14.In the 7mniscient point of view, the narrator is not part of the action but knows what all the other characters are thinking or feeling and informs the reader.

15.In the limited omniscient point of view, the narrator knows the thoughts, feelings, and experiences of a single character.

16.List the 4 types of conflicts characters face: Character vs. Character, Character vs....
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