(TO BE HANDED IN SEPARATELY – WRITE YOUR NAME ON ALL THE SHEETS OF PAPER YOU HAND IN)
1.Identify the verb phrase constructions in the following sentences (phrasal verb, prepositional verb, phrasal-prepositional verb, lexical verb on its own, auxiliary + verb).
1. A Phrasal verb: is a two –word verb where the second element is an adverbial particle. These phrasal verbs can be transitive or intransitive. The particle in a phrasal verb generally has a non-literal meaning, whereas the particles often functions as adverbials.
Transitive phrasal verbs differs from the prepositional verbs by the fact that the particle can be moved after the object, and has to be moved if the object is a pronoun. As a result of the literal meaning of the particle is weakened, phrasal verbs therefore often constitute a single unit of meaning. Of this reason they may be replaced by one verb, like: give in (“surrender”) or count in (“include”). So the single verb alternative tends to take a more formal role.
2. Prepositional verb: designates a combination of a two - word verb and a preposition. The preposition belongs to the verb, and the verb selects the preposition. For example: apply for, believe in or depend on.
The preposition cannot be separated from the verb and placed after a noun phrase like this: “they looked the problem into”. Many prepositional verbs constitute a single unit of meaning and can be replaced by one verb, like: look into (investigate/examine).
3. A prepositional phrase: consists of a preposition plus a compliment. The compliment consists usually of a noun or a noun phrase. In contrast to other phrase types, in prepositional phrases both elements are considered equally important, and compulsory. Examples are: “In the evening” and “at work”.
4. A phrasal – prepositional verbs: is another type of multi – word verb, and consists of a verb + an adverb + preposition. In the same way that prepositional and phrasal verbs, their meaning can be idiomatic when the adverb and the preposition have lost their literal meaning. In these cases it is impossible to reach the meaning of the three – word combination by adding their meanings and individual elements. Like: “I`ve got to catch up on my reading”.
5. Lexical words: are also called content words, and refers to: action, activities, states or relations. Their only syntactic function is head of a verb phrase. Lexical words are the most central words for the meaning of sentences. Lexical words does not take do-support, except in Standard British English where they lack the do-insertion. They are divided into four word classes: nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs.
6. Auxiliaries are function words and have little or no meaning of their own. They have the function of helping the lexical verb expressing additional meanings such as uncertainty, completed or ongoing action and perspective on the action. Auxiliaries are divided into: Modal auxiliaries: will, must, could or shall, Grammatical auxiliaries: be, do and have.
a. Judy looked up the song in a music dictionary.
This is a Phrasal – prepositional verb, since it contains a verb (looked), an adverb (up), and a preposition (the). Verb + an adverb + a preposition.
b. Judy can look after her own interests in the music business.
This is a phrasal verb, since it contains a two-word verb “can” and “look”. “look” is an intransitive verb, which means that it does not have or take object. The second element: the intransitive verb “look” functions as an adverbial since it describes the vern: “can”.
c) Judy is singing a song.
“Singing” is a lexical verb, since it refers to an activity, and is equipped with an – ing form, and the word “is”, which is an auxiliary, since it describes what Judy is doing, it refers to an ongoing action, and therefore has an progressive aspect.
c. Judy sings...