|Introduction |3 | |1 Intonation |4 | |1.1 English intonation |4 | |1.2 Intonation of the sentence |6 | |1.3 Melodic of English |7 | |2 Intonation features of sentence in English and Russian |14 | |2.1 The main features of the sentence in Russian |14 | |2.2 Comparison analysis of sentence intonation in English and Russian based on material of oral speech |15 | |Conclusion |24 | |References |25 |
In any language, intonation is used for exterior design of the sentence. With the help of intonation our listeners understand whether the sentence narrative, question, request or ejaculation. For example, the sentence "It is warm today" may be the statement, questions and exclamations, depending on the intonation with which sentence was pronounced. Intonation also expresses our emotions: surprise, anger, joy, frustration, etc. Each language has its own special characteristic of his tone noticeably different from the intonation of other languages. In English, intonation is particularly important because there strongly expressed the analytical nature of the language. In the analytical language the relations between words are not expressed by the endings, like in the Russian language, but with the help of auxiliary words: prepositions, articles, auxiliary verbs, as well as through intonation. The constituent elements of intonation are:
- melodic voice, which is implemented by raising or lowering rates in the phrase (compare the pronunciation of narrative and interrogative sentences); −- rhythm of speech, alternation of stressed and unstressed syllables; −- rate, quickness or slowness of speech and pauses between speech segments (compare speech delayed, and it rapidly); −- timbre, sound coloration, giving to speech some emotionally expressive shades (tone "gay," "playful," "gloomy," etc.); −- phrase and logical stress, serve as a means of allocation of separate words in a sentence. Long sentences are divided into separate semantic groups that depend on the general meaning of the sentence, its grammatical structure and style of speech. The theme is relevant because intonation is made up of several components: 1) the fundamental frequency of voice (high altitude or the melodic component), 2) intensity (dynamic component), 3) duration or tempo (temporal, temporal component), 4) pause; 5) timbre. All components of intonation, except for a pause, always present in the utterance, because no element of it can be pronounced without any pitch of the voice, etc. Therefore, all components of intonation are working closely together. You can, however, firstly, to establish a certain hierarchy of them, and secondly, there is evidence of a certain division of functions between them. Hypothesis: the work on intonation plays an important role as a bridge in a single system of verbal activity. Through the...