English Grammar

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* allegory: Extended metaphor in which a story is told to illustrate an important attribute of the subject * alliteration: Repetition of the first consonant sound in a phrase. * allusion: Indirect reference to another work of literature or art * anacoenosis: Posing a question to an audience, often with the implication that it shares a common interest with the speaker * antanaclasis: A form of pun in which a word is repeated in two different senses * anthimeria: Substitution of one part of speech for another, often turning a noun into a verb * anthropomorphism: Ascribing human characteristics to something that is not human, such as an animal or a god (see zoomorphism) * antimetabole: Repetition of words in successive clauses, but in transposed grammatical order * antiphrasis: Word or words used contradictory to their usual meaning, often with irony * antonomasia: Substitution of a phrase for a proper name or vice versa * aphorism: Tersely phrased statement of a truth or opinion, an adage * apophasis: Invoking an idea by denying its invocation

* apostrophe: Addressing a thing, an abstraction or a person not present * archaism: Use of an obsolete, archaic, word (a word used in olden language, e.g. Shakespeare's language) * auxesis: Form of hyperbole, in which a more important sounding word is used in place of a more descriptive term * bathos: Pompous speech with a ludicrously mundane worded anti-climax * catachresis: Mixed metaphor (sometimes used by design and sometimes a rhetorical fault) * circumlocution: "Talking around" a topic by substituting or adding words, as in euphemism or periphrasis * commiseration: Evoking pity in the audience

* correctio: Linguistic device used for correcting one's mistakes, a form of which is epanorthosis * denominatio: Another word for metonymy
* double negative: Grammar construction that can be used as an expression and it is the repetition of negative words * dysphemism: Substitution of a harsher, more offensive, or more disagreeable term for another. Opposite of euphemism * epanorthosis: Immediate and emphatic self-correction, often following a slip of the tongue * enumeratio: A form of amplification in which a subject is divided, detailing parts, causes, effects, or consequences to make a point more forcibly * epanodos: Repetition in a sentence with a reversal of words. Example: The Sabbath was made for man, not man for the Sabbath * erotema: Synonym for rhetorical question

* euphemism: Substitution of a less offensive or more agreeable term for another * exclamation: An emphatic parenthetic addition that is complete in itself, exclamation differs from interjection in that it usually involves an emotional response. * hermeneia: Repetition for the purpose of interpreting what has already been said * humour: Provoking laughter and providing amusement

* hyperbaton: Words that naturally belong together are separated from each other for emphasis or effect * hyperbole: Use of exaggerated terms for emphasis
* hypocatastasis: An implication or declaration of resemblance that does not directly name both terms * hypophora: Answering one's own rhetorical question at length * hysteron proteron: Reversal of anticipated order of events; a form of hyperbaton * innuendo: Having a hidden meaning in a sentence that makes sense whether it is detected or not * inversion: A reversal of normal word order, especially the placement of a verb ahead of the subject (subject-verb inversion). * invocation: Apostrophe to a god or muse

* irony: Use of word in a way that conveys a meaning opposite to its usual meaning * kataphora: Repetition of a cohesive device at the end
* litotes: Emphasizing the magnitude of a statement by denying its opposite * malapropism: Using a word through confusion with a word that sounds similar * meiosis: Use of...
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