English 103 Outline

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Tabular Presentation

Introduction to Data Analysis
Why do we analyze data?
Make sense of data we have collected
Basic steps in preliminary data analysis
Introduction to Data Analysis
Editing of data
Impose minimal quality standards on the raw data
Field Edit -- preliminary edit, used to detect glaring omissions and inaccuracies (often involves respondent follow up) Completeness
Introduction to Data Analysis
Coding -- transforming raw data into symbols (usually numbers) for tabulating, counting, and analyzing Must determine categories
Completely exhaustive
Mutually exclusive
Assign numbers to categories
Make sure to code an ID number for each completed instrument Introduction to Data Analysis
Tabulation -- counting the number of cases that fall into each category Initial tabulations should be preformed for each item
One-way tabulations
Determines degree of item non-response
Locates errors
Locates outliers
Determines the data distribution

Using Tables
The representation of data in a table is formally referred to as “tabular presentation Organizes and facilitates dialogue between text and numbers
Shows trend and relationships among variables
Parts of a Table
Basic rules for tabular presentation:
Be certain that your table can stand alone without any explanation. Make sure that your table is supplementary to your text and does not replicate it. Refer to all tables by numbers in your text, e.g., Table 1, 2, 3... Describe or discuss only the table's highlights in your text. Always give units of measurement in table headings.

Align decimal places.
Round numbers as much as possible. Try to round to two decimal places unless more decimals are needed. Only include the necessary number of tables in your paper, otherwise, it may be redundant or confusing to the reader. Do not use tables if you only have two or fewer columns and rows. In such cases, a textual description is enough. Organize your tables neatly so that the meaning of the table is obvious at first glance. Remember that too many rows or columns could make it difficult for the reader to understand the data. You may need to reduce the amount of data, or separate the data into additional tables.

Types of Tables
Textual (Word) Tables: 
-textual data in the body.
-with qualitative data
-to make comparisons of items easy
-to present examples, which may be grouped

Statistical Tables:
- can present descriptive or inferential statistics or both (such as mean, standard deviation, mode, range, or frequency) Statistical

Numerical Tables: 
-most common types of data, which typically represent quantitative data, but sometimes may present a combination of quantitative and qualitative data. -consists of specific number values.
Preliminary Data Analysis
Compute Percentages
Eliminate non-responses

Note – Report without missing data

II. The Interview: an Introduction

Technique to collect information
Interactive, verbal, real time contact
First step in collecting information for needs analysis
Research method for making personal contacts
The Interview: Concept

The interview is a way to:
Share ideas, engage in dialogue, solve problems
Obtain peripheral information that may be associated with an analysis goal

Purposes of Interviews

Provides in-depth narrative information
Encourages respondents to talk about: feelings, attitudes, and opinions Provides information to develop questions for a written questionnaire Produces information for analysis
Validates information that we may already have
Three Types of Interviews
According to form:

According to techniques:
Face to face

Three steps in interviewing

Preparation: objectives, interview schedule and interview guides. Execution: conduct...
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