English 101 ( Study and Thinking Skills)

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  • Topic: English language, Grammatical gender, Grammatical number
  • Pages : 8 (1571 words )
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  • Published : December 4, 2012
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I.ENGLISH LANGUAGE HISTORY
The history of the English language really started with the arrival of three Germanic tribes who invaded Britain during the 5th century AD. These tribes, the Angles, the Saxons and the Jutes, crossed the North Sea from what today is Denmark and northern Germany. At that time the inhabitants of Britain spoke a Celtic language. But most of the Celtic speakers were pushed west and north by the invaders - mainly into what is now Wales, Scotland and Ireland. The Angles came from "Englaland" [sic] and their language was called "Englisc" - from which the words "England" and "English" are derived. Germanic invaders entered Britain on the east and south coasts in the 5th century. a.Old English

The invading Germanic tribes spoke similar languages, which in Britain developed into what we now call Old English. Old English did not sound or look like English today. Native English speakers now would have great difficulty understanding Old English. Nevertheless, about half of the most commonly used words in Modern English have Old English roots. The words be,strong and water, for example, derive from Old English. Old English was spoken until around 1100. b.Middle English

In 1066 William the Conqueror, the Duke of Normandy (part of modern France), invaded and conquered England. The new conquerors (called the Normans) brought with them a kind of French, which became the language of the Royal Court, and the ruling and business classes. For a period there was a kind of linguistic class division, where the lower classes spoke English and the upper classes spoke French. In the 14th century English became dominant in Britain again, but with many French words added. This language is called Middle English. It was the language of the great poet Chaucer (c1340-1400), but it would still be difficult for native English speakers to understand today. c.Modern English

It is develop when Johan Gutenberg invented the printing press in Germany in 1450. In 1476 William Cockston established in England the first printing press which he had printed some books and distributed to the people. Almost 300 million all over the world is speaking English. II.NOUNS

Noun is a part of speech that is used to denote a person, place, thing; action concept, quality, and emotions. KINDS OF NOUNS
a.Proper noun starts with a capital letter also specific particular and definite. It is the name of a specific person, place, thing, or event. Example:
Micah
Argentina
Table
Heroes’ Day
b.Common noun is a name of person, place or thing, general in term Example:
Coffee shops
Jeans
Sandwich
Country
c.Abstract noun- is a noun that expresses ideas, feelings, quality, and emotion. It refers to something a person cannot physically interact with.

Example:
Peace
Sympathy
Integrity
Compassion
d.Concrete noun is a noun that exists to the physical world. It is also a noun which a person can physically interact with. Example:
Computer
Pencil
Students
Dog
e.Count Noun is a noun that can be counted or countable. It can be modified by numeral and it occurs to be singular or plural. Example:
Assignments
Hurricanes
Two apples
Chairs
f.Mass Noun/Non-countable noun is a noun that cannot be counted by them because they are always treated as a group, volume mass or quantity. Example:
Water-a glass of water
Coal-a sack of coal
Bread-a ballot of bread
Gasoline-a gallon of gasoline
g.Collective Noun is a special class, name groups ( things ) composed of members(usually people). It is also a collection of words but gives only one meaning. Example:
Council
Faculty
Team
Committee

h. Compound Noun is a noun that is composed of two nouns, which is combined together to form another noun or it is made up o two or more different words. Example:
Football
Washing machine
Software
Breakfast

III.GENDER OF NOUNS
The idea that nouns have...
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