Engineering Fundamentals of the Internal Combustion Engine

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Engineering Fundamentals of the Internal Combustion Engine

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Willard W. Pulkrabek
University of Wisconsin-· .. Platteville

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Contents

2-3 2-4 2-5 2-6 2-7 2-8 2-9 2-10 2-11 2-12

Mean Effective Pressure, 49 Torque and Power, 50 Dynamometers, 53 Air-Fuel Ratio and Fuel-Air Ratio, 55 Specific Fuel Consumption, 56 Engine Efficiencies, 59 Volumetric Efficiency, 60 Emissions, 62 Noise Abatement, 62 Conclusions-Working Equations, 63 Problems, 65 Design Problems, 67

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ENGINE CYCLES

68

3-1 3-2 3-3 3-4 3-5 3-6 3-7 3-8 3-9 3-10 3-11 3-12 3-13 3-14

Air-Standard Cycles, 68 Otto Cycle, 72 Real Air-Fuel Engine Cycles, 81 SI Engine Cycle at Part Throttle, 83 Exhaust Process, 86 Diesel Cycle, 91 Dual Cycle, 94 Comparison of Otto, Diesel, and Dual Cycles, 97 Miller Cycle, 103 Comparison of Miller Cycle and Otto Cycle, 108 Two-Stroke Cycles, 109 Stirling Cycle, 111 Lenoir Cycle, 113 Summary, 115 Problems, 116 Design Problems, 120 AND FUELS 121

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THERMOCHEMISTRY

4-1 4-2 4-3 4-4 4-5 4-6 4-7

Thermochemistry, 121 Hydrocarbon Fuels-Gasoline, 131 Some Common Hydrocarbon Components, 134 Self-Ignition and Octane Number, 139 Diesel Fuel, 148 Alternate Fuels, 150 Conclusions, 162 Problems, 162 Design Problems, 165

Contents
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AIR AND FUEL INDUCTION 166 Intake Manifold, 166 Volumetric Efficiency of SI Engines, 168 Intake Valves, 173 Fuel Injectors, 178 Carburetors, 181 Supercharging and Turbocharging, 190 Stratified Charge Engines and Dual Fuel Engines, 195 5-8 Intake for Two-Stroke Cycle Engines, 196 5-9 Intake for CI Engines, 199 5-10 Conclusions, 201 Problems, 202 Design Problems, 204 5-1 5-2 5-3 5-4 5-5 5-6 5-7

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FLUID MOTION WITHIN COMBUSTION 6-1 6-2 6-3 6-4 6-5 6-6 6-7 6-8

CHAMBER

206

Turbulence, 206 Swirl, 208 Squish and Tumble, 213 Divided Combustion Chambers, 214 Crevice Flow and Blowby, 215 Mathematical Models and Computer Simulation, 219 Internal Combustion Engine Simulation Program, 221 Conclusions, 225 Problems, 226 Design Problems, 228

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COMBUSTION 229 7-1 7-2 7-3 7-4 7-5 7-6 Combustion in SI Engines, 229 Combustion in Divided Chamber Engines and Stratified Charge Engines, 243 Engine o?Itrating Characteristics, 246 Modern Fast Burn Combustion Chambers, 248 Combustion in CI Engines, 251 Summary, 259 Problems, 260 Design Problems, 261

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Contents
EXHAUST FLOW

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262

8-1 8-2 8-3 8-4 8-5 8-6 8-7 8-8 8-9 8-10

Blowdown, 262 Exhaust Stroke, 265 Exhaust Valves, 268 Exhaust Temperature, 269 Exhaust Manifold, 270 Turbochargers, 272 Exhaust Gas Recycle-EGR, 273 Tailpipe and Muffler, 273 Two-Stroke Cycle Engines, 274 Summary and Conclusions, 274 Problems, 275 Design Problems, 276 AND AIR POLLUTION

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EMISSIONS

277

9-1 9-2 9-3 9-4 9-5 9-6 9-7 9-8 9-9 9-10 9-11 9-12

Air Pollution, 277 Hydrocarbons (He), 278 Carbon Monoxide (CO), 285 Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx), 285 Particulates, 287 Other Emissions, 290 Aftertreatment, 292 Catalytic Converters, 293 CI Engines, 301 Chemical Methods to Reduce Emissions, 303 Exhaust Gas Recycle-EGR, 304 Non-Exhaust Emissions, 307 Problems, 308 Design Problems, 311 312

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HEAT TRANSFER IN ENGINES

10-1 10-2 10-3 10-4 10-5 10-6

Energy Distribution, 313 Engine Temperatures, 314 Heat Transfer in Intake System, 317 Heat Transfer in Combustion Chambers, 318 Heat Transfer in Exhaust System, 324 Effect of Engine Operating Variables on Heat Transfer, 327 10-7 Air Cooled Engines, 334 10-8 Liquid Cooled Engines, 335

~ 10-9 10-10 10-11 10-12 10-13 Oil as a Coolant, 340 Adiabatic Engines, 341 Some Modern Trends in Engine Cooling, 342 Thermal Storage, 343 Summary, 345 Problems, 345 Design Problems, 348

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FRICTION AND LUBRICATION 11-1 Mechanical Friction and Lubrication, 349 11-2 Engine Friction, 351 11-3 Forces on Piston, 360 11-4 Engine Lubrication Systems, 364 11-5 Two-Stroke Cycle Engines, 366 11-6 Lubricating Oil, 367 11-7 Oil Filters, 373 11-8 Summary and Conclusions, 375 Problems,...
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