Dr. S. BalasubramanianMr. S. Kannan
Former Director – IPRResearch Scholar
Anna University CoimbatoreAnna University Coimbatore
Higher Education in India
Higher Education in India has evolved in distinct and divergent streams with each stream monitored by an apex body, indirectly controlled by the Ministry of Human Resource Development. The 415 universities/ institutions, are mostly funded by the state governments. However, there are 24 important universities called Central universities, which are maintained by the Union Government and because of relatively large funding, they have an edge over the others. The engineering education and business schools are monitored and accredited by the All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) while medical education is monitored and accredited by the Medical Council of India (MCI). Like-wise, agriculture education and research is monitored by the Indian Council for Agriculture Research. Apart from these, National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE) controls all the teacher training institutions in the country. The country has some ace engineering, management and medical education institutions which are directly funded by the Ministry of Human Resource Development of the Union Government. Admission to all professional education colleges is done through all-India common admission tests of which the IIT-JEE, AIEEE, CAT and CPMT are the most popular ones. Most of the institutions reserve a small percentage of seats for foreign students.
Growth of Engineering Institutions
India has the potential to be a global technology leader. The Indian economy has been growing at the rate of 9% per year. The Indian industry has also become globally competitive in several sectors and can increase its global market share. A critical factor in this will be the success of the technical education system in India.
Engineering education in India started during the British era and focused mainly on civil engineering. A brief history of engineering education in India is available in the Rao Committee report and the Ministry of Human Resource Development website . The Engineering College at Roorkee (1847), Poona Civil Engineering College at Pune (1854), Bengal Engineering College at Shibpur (1856), Banaras Hindu University (1916), Harcourt Butler Technological Institute, Kanpur (1920) were some of the earliest engineering colleges established that continue till the present day.
In 1945 the Sarkar Committee was appointed to suggest options for advanced technical education in India. The Sarkar committee recommended the establishment of higher technical institutes based on the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the four regions of India. This resulted in the setting up of the five Indian Institutes of Technology at Kharagpur (1950), Bombay (1958), Kanpur (1959), Madras (1960) and Delhi (1961) (Delhi was added on to the original four). The All India Council for Technical Education was set up in 1945, to oversee all technical education (diploma, degree and post-graduate) in the country.
Major Branches of Engineering
Acoustic Engineering : Designing of buildings and rooms to make them quiet, improving conditions for listening to speech and music in auditoriums and halls and developing techniques and sound absorbing materials to reduce noise pollution
Aerospace Engineering : Developing of various technologies relating to aircrafts, spaceships and missiles that are designed for flight in the earth’s atmosphere and in outer space
Aeronautical Engineering : Applying engineering principles and techniques to the design construction and operation of aircrafts
Agricultural Engineering : Designing agricultural equipment, erosion control and irrigation and land conservation projects, and processing, transporting and storing of agricultural products...