Topics: Electronic stability control, Anti-lock braking system, Robert Bosch GmbH Pages: 31 (3619 words) Published: May 21, 2013
Sensing in Automotive Powertrain and Braking Systems


• Brief Introduction
• Automotive electronics & sensors • Capabilities available from ON Semiconductor

• Powertrain Systems
• Gasoline and diesel engines • Main powertrain sensors

• Braking and Stability Control Systems
• Basic systems: ABS, EBD, TCS, ESC • Sensors for dynamic braking

• Examples of automotive sense interface ICs
• Sensing interface IP from ON Semiconductor

Automotive Electronics
• Value added by ON Semiconductor APG
– Proprietary High-Voltage Processes – Innovative Solutions: Sensor Interfaces, IVN, High-Voltage System-on-Chip – Harsh Environment Applications – Extensive Automotive Portfolio ← focus area for green electronics

Key Successes in sensing
– – – – Steering/Pedal Angle Sensor Pressure sensors for Powertrain / Braking Position Sensors for Headlight Control Gyro Sensors for Stability Control

Main drivers for new electronics
– Safety – Emissions – Fuel consumption

Regulation plays a key role


Modern Automotive Sensors
• • • • • • • • External sensing element or MEMS Built-in protections (shorts, EMI, ESD…) Diagnostic modes / redundancy Accuracy / linearity reaching ~0.1% to 1% NVM for trimming and calibration Nonlinear temperature compensation TJ at IC: from –40 oC up to +125~200 oC Target failure rate: zero ppm


Automotive Technologies Portfolio
100 V 80 V HBIMOS I2T100 50 V I3T50 25 V 5V 3.3 V 1.8 V ABX C07 1K 5K 0.7 u 0.6 u I2T30(E) C5X I3T25 D3 C035 C3,C035U 100K

I3T80 I4T

C018 500K 0.18 u

Gate Count
(drawn poly)


>1.5 u

0.35 u

(OTP, EEPROM, etc.)

Non-volatile Memory (NVM) IP
– – – – – Long experience, started with C5 NASTEE release in 1999 Non-added-steps EEPROMS available today for C5 / C3 / I3T50 I3T50 EEPROM is capable of 175 oC operation (reading) EE being released for I3T25U (Q4 2009) Development for 0.18 u ongoing

– OTP is Zener diode zap – Available in I2T100, I3T25, I3T50, I3T80

• Flash
– Requires 5 added process steps – Special technology developed only for I3T80 – Technology is qualified to 150 oC read (50 oC for write) 6

Analog Control and Signal Processing : Voltage regulators Amplifiers, comparators ADC, DAC Filters (SC, GMC, RC) …

I3T Example
Vdc < 65V/36V/18V
Digital Signal Processing and Control :

Peripheral Extension

Peripheral Extension

Vbat 5 V Regulator

ROM or Flash

State Machine or uController based

Sensor Int. : HV / LV Inductive Capacitive Resistive Temperature …


JTAG Timer PWM GPIO Comm. Control Unit
LIN BSD RS-232 …






ARM7 R8051


Temp sense

Drivers : Motor Relay Lamp Heat …



Logic Control Block

LIN Transceiver



Gasoline Engine System Concept

Source: Continental


Diesel Engine


The Internal Combustion Engine
Chemical equation for stoichiometric hydrocarbon burning

y⎞ ⎛ ⎛ y⎞ C x H y + ⎜ x + ⎟O 2 → xCO 2 + ⎜ ⎟ H 2 O + Heat 4⎠ ⎝ ⎝2⎠ Nikolaus Otto Rudolf Diesel

Partial combustion Fuel evaporation Nitrogen from air Sulfur from fuel

HC – Hydrocarbons (unburned) CO – Carbon monoxide NO, NO2 – Nitrogen oxides (NOx) SO2 – Sulfur dioxide Diesel particulate matter (DPM) 11

Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI)
• • Stringent emission regulations obsoleted the carburetor (~80’s) Advantages of EFI – Precise and accurate fuel measurement – Improved cylinder-to-cylinder fuel distribution (MPFI, GDI, DDI) – Predictable exhaust composition – Enables use of optimized catalytic converters

Net benefits
– #1: Lower emissions – #2: Higher efficiency – #3: Increased power


The ECU Control Loop
Throttle position Intake air temperature Manifold air pressure Mass air flow (MAF) Fuel pressure In-cylinder pressure Coolant temperature Crankshaft position Camshaft position Engine speed Engine...
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