Energy the Present and Future Scenario

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ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT

ENERGY: THE PRESENT AND THE FUTURE SCENARIO
A report

CONTENTS

S.NO| TOPIC| PAGE NUMBER|
1. | INTRODUCTION TO ENERGY| 3|
2.| FORMS OF ENERGY| 4|
3. | DIFFERENT TYPES OF RENEWABLE ENERGY * SOLAR ENERGY * HYDEL ENERGY * WIND ENERGY * BIOMASS ENERGY * GEOTHERMAL ENERGY * FUEL CELLS ENERGY * CO-GENERATION| 5581012141518| 4. | DIFFERENT TYPES OF NON-RENEWABLE ENERGY * COAL * OIL AND GAS| 181822| 5.| NUCLEAR ENERGY| 24|

6.| FUTURE OF ENERGY| 27|
7.| CONSERVATION OF ENERGY| 29|

INTRODUCTION TO ENERGY

Energy lights our cities, powers our vehicles, and runs machinery in factories. It warms and cools our homes, cooks our food, plays our music, and gives us pictures on television. Energy is defined as the ability or the capacity to do work. We use energy to do work and make all movements. When we eat, our bodies transform the food into energy to do work. When we run or walk or do some work, we ‘burn’ energy in our bodies. Cars, planes, trolleys, boats, and machinery also transform energy into work. Work means moving or lifting something, warming or lighting something. There are many sources of energy that help to run the various machines invented by man. The discovery of fire by man led to the possibility of burning wood for cooking and heating thereby using energy. For several thousand years human energy demands were met only by renewable energy sources—sun, biomass (wood, leaves, twigs), hydel (water) and wind power. As early as 4000–3500 BC, the first sailing ships and windmills were developed harnessing wind energy. With the use of hydropower through water mills or irrigation systems, things began to move faster. Fuelwood and dung cakes are even today a major source of energy in rural India. Solar energy is used for drying and heating. With the advent of the Industrial Revolution, the use of energy in the form of fossil fuels began to grow as more and more industries were set up. This occurred in stages, from the exploitation of coal deposits to the exploitation of oil and natural gas fields. It has been only half a century since nuclear power began being used as an energy source. In the past century, it became evident that the consumption of non-renewable sources of energy had caused more environmental damage than any other human activity. Electricity generated from fossil fuels such as coal and crude oil has led to high concentrations of harmful gases in the atmosphere. This has in turn led to problems such as ozone depletion and global warming. There has been an enormous increase in the demand for energy since the middle of the last century as a result of industrial development and population growth. World population grew 3.2 times between 1850 and 1970, per capita use of industrial energy increased about twentyfold, and total world use of industrial and traditional energy forms combined increased more than twelvefold. Due to the problems associated with the use of fossil fuels, alternative sources of energy have become important and relevant in today’s world. These sources, such as the sun and wind, can never be exhausted and are therefore called renewable. Also known as non-conventional sources of energy, they cause less emission and are available locally. Their use can significantly reduce chemical, radioactive, and thermal pollution. They are viable sources of clean and limitless energy. Most of the renewable sources of energy are fairly non-polluting and considered clean. However, biomass is a major polluter indoors. Renewable energy sources include the sun, wind, water, agricultural residue, fuelwood, and animal dung. Fossil fuels are non-renewable sources. Energy generated from the sun is known as solar energy. Hydel is the energy derived from water. Biomass – firewood, animal dung, and biodegradable waste from cities and crop residues – is a source of energy when it is burnt. Geothermal energy is derived from hot dry rocks,...
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