EEE PRESENTEC 2011
M. GOPALA KRISHNAN
SELVA SUNDAR. R
INFANT JESUS COLLEGE OF ENGG
The topic of this paper is energy meter. This paper deals with energy meter, its types, working principle, some advance meters, advantages, disadvantages application, conclusion. The condent of this paper is taken from electrical technology text book written by A.K. THERAJA and from various internet resources.
An electricity meter or energy meter is a device that measures the amount of electric energy consumed by a residence, business, or an electrically powered device. Electricity meters are typically calibrated in billing units, the most common one being the kilowatt hour. Periodic readings of electric meters establishes billing cycles and energy used during a cycle. In settings when energy savings during certain periods are desired, meters may measure demand, the maximum use of power in some interval. In some areas the electric rates are higher during certain times of day, reflecting the higher cost of power resources during peak demand time periods. Also, in some areas meters have relays to turn off nonessential equipment. * |
Direct Current (DC)
As commercial use of electric energy spread in the 1880s, it became increasingly important that an electric energy meter, similar to the then existing gas meters, was required to properly bill customers for the cost of energy, instead of billing for a fixed number of lamps per month. Many experimental types of meter were developed. Edison at first worked on a DC electromechanical meter with a direct reading register, but instead developed an electrochemical metering system, which used an electrolytic cell to totalize current consumption. At periodic intervals the plates were removed, weighed, and the customer billed. The electrochemical meter was labor-intensive to read and not well received by customers. In 1885 Ferranti offered a mercury motor meter with a register similar to gas meters; this had the advantage that the consumer could easily read the meter and verify consumption. The first accurate, recording electricity consumption meter was a DC meter by Dr Hermann Aron, who patented it in 1883. Hugo Hirst of the British General Electric Company introduced it commercially into Great Britain from 1888. Meters had been used prior to this, but they measured the rate of energy consumption at that particular moment, i.e. the electric power. Aron's meter recorded the total energy used over time, and showed it on a series of clock dials. Alternating Current (AC)
The first specimen of the AC kilowatt-hour meter produced on the basis of Hungarian Ottó Bláthy's patent and named after him was presented by the Ganz Works at the Frankfurt Fair in the autumn of 1889, and the first induction kilowatt-hour meter was already marketed by the factory at the end of the same year. These were the first alternating-current watt meters, known by the name of Bláthy-meters. The AC kilowatt hour meters used at present operate on the same principle as Bláthy's original invention Also around 1889, Elihu Thomson of the American General Electric company developed a recording watt meter (watt-hour meter) based on an ironless commutator motor. This meter overcame the disadvantages of the electrochemical type and could operate on either alternating or direct current. In 1894 Oliver Shallenberger of the Westinghouse Electric Corporation applied the induction principle previously used  only in AC ampere-hour meters to produce a watt-hour meter of the modern electromechanical form, using an induction disk whose rotational speed was made proportional to the power in the circuit. The Bláthy meter was similar to Shallenberger and Thomson meter in that they are two-phase motor meter....