Energy Crisis in Pakistan

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2.Pakistan’s Energy Sector
2.1Energy Supply
2.2Energy Consumption
3.Sources of Energy in Pakistan
3.1Non-renewable resources (Fossil fuels)
Petroleum products
b).Natural Gas
3.2Renewable Resources
a).Hydro power
oCurrent Hydropower stations
oPotential Hydropower stations
3.3Alternative Energy Sources
c).Agricultural biomass /biodiesel

4.Causes of Energy Crisis
4.1Growing Energy Demand
4.2Lack of proactive and integrated planning for production of energy 4.3Imbalanced energy mix
4.4Non-utilization of enormous indigenous energy resources a).Thar Coal
b).Hydal power generation
5.Consequences of Energy Crisis
5.1Economic Factors
5.2Agriculture Sector
5.3Industrial Sector
5.5Social Issues

7.Recommendation/Solutions of Energy Crisis
7.1Judicious energy use/saving unecessary energy usage
oelectricity saving devices
oAwareness campaign for energy saving
oReduction in unnecessary transportations
oInstallation of effective equipment/energy efficient in industries oDecreasing line/transmission losses
7.2Developing new energy resources
oTapping indigenous resources
oUsing renewable resources (water) by constructing new dams and hydro power plants oImport of natural gas
oUtilizing alternative energy resources
Wind power
Biodiesel /Biomass
oEnhancing civilian nuclear capacity
1.Introduction :

Energy is considered to be life line of any economy and most vital instrument of socioeconomic development of a country. Energy is pivotal in running machinery in factories and industrial units, for lighting our cities and powering our vehicles etc.

There has been an enormous increase in the demand of energy as a result of industrial development and population growth, in comparison to enhancement in energy production. Supply of energy is, therefore, far less than the actual demand, resultantly crisis has emerged. An energy crisis can be defined as any great bottleneck (or price rise) in the supply of energy resources to an economy.

2.Pakistan’s Energy Sector:

Pakistan’s energy infrastructure is not well developed, rather it is considered to be underdeveloped and poorly managed. Currently the country is facing severe energy crisis. Despite of strong economic growth and rising energy demand during past decade, no serious efforts have been made to install new capacity of generation. Moreover, rapid demand growth, transmission losses due to outdated infrastructure, power theft, and seasonal reductions in the availability of hydropower have worsened the situation. Consequently, the demand exceeds supply and hence load-shedding is a common phenomenon through power shutdown.

2.1Energy Supply :

During 2009-10, Energy supply and per capita availability of energy witnessed a decline of 0.64 % and 3.09 % respectively in comparison to previous year.

Pakistan needs around 15,000 to 20000 MW electricity per day, however, currently it is able to produce about 11,500 MW per day hence there is a shortfall of about 4000 to 9000 MW per day. This shortage is badly hampering the economic growth of the country.

2.2Energy Consumption :

Pakistan’s energy consumption is met by mix of gas, oil, electricity, coal and LPG sources with different level of shares. Share of gas consumption stood at 43.7 %, followed by oil 29.0 percent, electricity 15.3 percent, coal 10.4 percent and LPG 1.5 percent.

3.Sources of Energy in Pakistan:

3.1Non-renewable resources (Fossil fuels): [Limited – Expensive]

Non renewable resources are primarily fossil fuels emanating from remains/decomposition of animals and plants deposited deep into the earth crust and converted into oil and gas. These resources cannot be replenished. There are three main types of fossil fuels: coal, petroleum, natural gas...
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