Energy Conservation in India: Challenges & Achievements
Anjna N. Singh, Jagrati Sharma
Chemistry Deptt, MPCT, Gwalior ,India E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org , email@example.com ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Abstract: The gap between supply and demand of energy is continuously increasing despite huge outlay for energy sector since independence. Further the brining of fossil fuel is resulting in greenhouse gases which are detrimental to the environment. The gap between supply and demand of energy can be bridged with the help of energy conservation which may be considered as a new source of energy which is environment friendly. The energy conservation is cost effective with a short payback period and modest investment. There is a good scope of energy conservation in various sectors, viz industry agriculture, transport and domestic, This paper will give overview of energy conservation in Indian scenario. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________
India today has a vast population of more than 1.20 billions out of which nearly 75% are living in rural areas. Energy and development are inter-related. In order to have sustainable growth rate. It is imperative to have sufficient energy for systematic development in various sectors. Energy sector has received top priority in all Five year pains so far. During seventh Five Year plans 30% of the plan outlay was allotted to this sector. The installed capacity of electric power has increased from 1362 MW. At the time of independence to a staggering 70,000 MW. Despite such achievements, the gap between demand and supply of electrical energy is increasing every year as power sector is highly capital-intensive. The deficit in installed capacity was nearly 10,000 MW, by the and of eleventh five year plan. It is estimated that in 2011 alone India has lost above 10.0 billion US$ in manufacturing productivity because for power is projected to grow by 7 to 10% per year for the next 10 years. The working group on power had recommended capacity addition program of 46,645 MWduring the twelveth plan period along with the associated transmission and distribution works at a cost of Rs. 12, 26,000 corer. With this capacity addition there would have been a peak power shortage of 15.3 percent by the end of the 12th plans. The proven reserves of fossil fuel in India are not very large. A major share of scarce foreign currency is earmarked for importing petroleum products. The bill of which is continuously increasing coal reserve likely to be exhausted by the middle or centaury. Thus a bleak scenario awaits India in future unless absolutely new strategies are adopted. In spite of huge plan outlay of energy sector in last 60 years, most of the rural population has not yet been able to reach the threshold of enough energy to meet their basic human needs. There appears to be something basically wrong in planning. The planners have adopted the western model of centralized energy system without necessary modification to suit Indian condition. In future the energy conservation would assume more significance globally on the basis of the effect of burning fossil fuel on environment, particularly the global warming rather than the depletion of fossil fuel reserves and other consideration. Sector wise energy consumption:Sector Industry Transport Residential Agriculture Others %power consumption 49% 22% 10% 5% 14%
THE SCOPE AND POTENTIAL The developing countries like India are obliged to maintain a certain growth rate for which energy is a basic ingredient. Failure to meet the energy demand for the basic needs of the economy will cause inflation unemployment and socio economic disorder. The major energy projects are capital-intensive and result in the degradation of the environment and ecology. Energy efficiency and conservation in the past have been...
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