* Vedas ( love and respect for nature )
* Ancient civilisations - self-imposed restrictions …to avoid pollution, degradation ..spiritual means .. ) * Rachel Carson and the Silent Spring: When Rachel Carson's Silent Spring was published in 1962; it generated a storm of controversy over the use of chemical pesticides. Miss Carson's intent in writing Silent Spring was to warn the public of the dangers associated with pesticide use. Throughout her book are numerous case studies documenting the harmful effects that chemical pesticides have had on the environment? Along with these facts, she explains how in many instances the pesticides have done more harm than good in eradicating the pests they were designed to destroy. In addition to her reports on pesticide use, Miss Carson points out that many of the long-term effects that these chemicals may have on the environment, as well as on humans, are still unknown. Her book as one critic wrote, "dealt pesticides a sharp blow" (Senior Scholastic 1962). The controversy sparked by Silent Spring led to the enactment of environmental legislation and the establishment of government agencies to better regulate the use of these chemicals * UNCED – Stockholm 1972
* Indira Gandhi and the environment (Project Tiger , Silent valley …. ) * Bhopal Gas disaster - 1984
Rio -1992: United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), also known as the Rio Summit, Rio Conference, Earth Summit(Portuguese: Eco '92) was a major United Nations conference held in Rio de Janeiro from 3 June to 14 June 1992. The issues addressed included: * systematic scrutiny of patterns of production — particularly the production of toxic components, such as lead in gasoline, or poisonous waste including radioactive chemicals * alternative sources of energy to replace the use of fossil fuels which are linked to global climate change * new reliance on public transportation systems in order to reduce vehicle emissions, congestion in cities and the health problems caused by polluted air and smog * the growing scarcity of water
Emerging trends in the new economy era
* Information revolution
* Traditional supply chains to virtual markets
* Change in Stakeholder relationships (client ,customer, supplier , manufacturers etc..) * Extended enterprises ( large corporates, diversification ) * Environmental performance, reporting practices
* Responsible behaviour towards environment , CSR etc.
* Environment as part of survival, ,sustainability and welfare * (Management of activities , within tolerable frameworks, guidelines keeping in mind ecological factors, natural processes ) * Environment as a strategic decision making tool
* Integration into Business, daily life
What is Environment ?
* Manager – external environment in which an organisation functions * Ecologist - Sum of all external conditions and influences affecting the life and development of organisms * Human - Abiotic factors - land water, atmosphere, climate, sound etc - Biotic - animals, plants, bacteria , viruses * Academician – An area of study which is a conglomerate of basic and applied sciences, engineering , socio economic aspects, management and law * Economist – natural environment is an asset or capital commodity that directly or indirectly provides man with economic beneifits.
* How does the Business and Industry therefore interpret the environment ? Environment = Pollution
= Hazardous substances
= Safety regulations
Environmental policy statement
Causes of major environmental Problems
* Intensive agriculture...