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Janine Luker
Student Identification: 22840848
June 27, 2009
Endocrinology Assignment/Personal Review and Summary

Endocrinology is the study of hormones, the receptors in your body, and the signaling they give to release hormones in your body. The definition for endocrinology is defined in many different ways, but with all related meanings that sum up to the physiology of the endocrine glands. The endocrine system sends messages to the endocrine glands in your body that include the adrenal, pituitary, thyroid, and parathyroid glands, as well as, the hypothalamus, pancreas, ovaries, and testes. There are two main systems in the body that control the proper functioning of the body. The nervous system sends ultra fast electrical alerts and messages from the brain. It is divided up into two main systems, the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. The nervous system is responsible for collecting information from the body, and sending out instructions from the brain back to the body. The endocrine system sends information by secretions into the blood to receptors in the body. These two main systems may also at times work together for peak physiological performance. The endocrine system is helpful in controlling certain functions in the human body. The substances help control metabolism, hormone reproduction, growth and development, and various other activities required for adequate survival. The hormones secreted can also help provide appropriate amount of nutrition and energy needed for your body to function well even with varying situations that hinder the body, such as missed meals or a change in the environment. The endocrine system plays a very vital role in the human body. The hormones that are in your body are excreted into your blood from cells or organs that circulate in your blood, and can affect the functioning of other cells or organs. There are certain cells that are called target cells because they contain a receptor for the hormone that can then interact influentially with the hormones. This is necessary for communication within the endocrine system. Three actions define the pathway for a signal in the system. The first of these actions is the known as the endocrine action. This action happens when a hormone is secreted into the bloodstream and binds to the cells with receptors, the target cells. This allows for the communication to begin for the second action to be taken, the paracrine action. In this next phase, the hormone disperses from the initial cell to other neighboring cells creating the final step called the autocrine action. This allows the hormone to now perform with the originating cell that it was introduced by. Hormones can change the target cells after it becomes bound, undergoing a change that allows it to communicate with the various components of those cells that, then will inevitably lead to a change in the physical state affecting transcription. Molecules that bind to areas of the receptors can either be called agonists or antagonists. Agonists are molecules that produce post-receptor events that will eventually lead to a biological event in the body. Antagonists block the binding of the antagonists without creation of any events that signal extra cellular events. Antagonists can be used widely for the use of drugs, and hormone therapy. Agonists can also play a role in this as well. Hormones can be divided up into four categories, and share basic properties alike. Proteins and peptides being one group that share a certain amount of responsibility. Peptides are polymers that are created by a linkage of amino acids. They function as signaling molecules, and as hormones in a higher functioning organism. The proteins are contained in a linear chain link that also makes up amino acids. They work together to achieve certain functions. They can also work to form stable complexes. Proteins are necessary and are essential for participation in...
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