Endangered Species

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The Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica), also known as the Indian lion, is a lion subspecies that exists as a single isolated population in India's Gujarat State. It is listed as Endangered by IUCN based on the small population size.[1] The lion population has steadily increased in Gir Forest National Park, more than doubling from a low of 180 individuals in 1974 to a level of 411 individuals consisting of 97 adult males, 162 adult females, 75 sub-adults, and 77 cubs as of April 2010.[3] The Asiatic lion was first described by the Austrian zoologist Meyer under the trinomen Felis leo persicus.[4] It is one of the five big cats found in India, apart from Bengal tiger, Indian leopard, snow leopard and clouded leopard.[5] It formerly occurred in Persia, Mesopotamia, Baluchistan, from Sind in the west to Bengal in the east, and from Rampur and Rohilkund in the north to Nerbudda in the south. It differs from the African lion by less inflated auditory bullae, a larger tail tuft and a less developed mThe most striking morphological character, which is always seen in Asiatic lions, but rarely in African lions, is a longitudinal fold of skin running along its belly.[7] Asiatic lions are slightly smaller than African lions. Adult males weigh 160 to 190 kg (350 to 420 lb), while females weigh 110 to 120 kg (240 to 260 lb).[8] The height at the shoulders is about 3.5 ft (110 cm).[9] The record total length of a male Asiatic lion is 2.92 m (115 in) including the tail.[10]ane.[6] Asiatic lions live in prides. Mean pride size, measured by the number of adult females, tends to be smaller than for African lions: most Gir prides contain just two adult females, with the largest having five.[16] Coalitions of males defend home ranges containing one or more groups of females, but unlike African lions, Gir males generally associate with their pride females only when mating or on a large kill. A lesser degree of sociality in the Gir lions may be a function of the smaller prey available to them: the most commonly taken species (45% of known kills), the chital, weighs only around 50 kg (110 lb).[17] As of 2010, approximately 105 lions, comprising 35 males, 35 females, 19 subadults, and 16 cubs existed outside the Gir forest, representing a full quarter of the entire lion population. The increase in satellite lion populations may represent the saturation of the lion population in the Gir forest and subsequent dispersal by sub-adults compelled to search for new territories outside their natal pride. Over the past two decades, these satellite areas became established, self-sustaining populations as evidenced by the presence of cubs since 1995.[3]

The olive ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea), also known as the Pacific ridley sea turtle, is a medium-sized species of sea turtle found in warm and tropical waters, primarily in the Pacific and Indian Oceans. The olive ridley is a small sea turtle, with an adult carapace length averaging 60 to 70 cm.[2] The heart-shaped carapace is characterized by four pairs of pore-bearing inframarginal scutes on the bridge, two pairs of prefrontals, and up to 9 lateral scutes per side. Olive ridleys are unique in that they can have variable and asymmetrical lateral scute counts ranging from five to 9 plates on each side, with six to eight being most commonly observed.[2] Each side of the carapace has 12–14 marginal scutes. The carapace is flattened dorsally and highest anterior to the bridge. It has a medium–sized, broad head that appears triangular from above. The head's concave sides are most obvious on the upper part of the short snout. It has paddle-like forelimbs, each having two anterior claws. The upperparts are grayish green to olive in color, but sometimes appear reddish due to algae growing on the carapace. The bridge and hingeless plastron of an adult varies from greenish white in younger individuals to a creamy yellow in older specimens.[2][3] The olive ridley turtle has a circumtropical...
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