End Hunger in Africa

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Grade 12 Sociology Exam Review

People

Sigmund Frued – the founder of psychoanalytic theory; believed that our early childhood experiences, usually involving our relationships with parents and family, are stored in our unconscious mind

Phillip Zimbardo – an American psychologist and a professor emeritus at Stanford University; college students chosen to be prisoners or guard in a mock prison; 2 week planned study ended after only 6 days from emotional trauma experienced by participants ; “guards” became sadistic and “prisoners” became depressed and passive.

Elvis Presley – United States rock singer who’s many hit records and flamboyant style greatly influenced American popular music

BF Skinner – an American behavioural psychologist who conducted learning experiments on a variety of creatures, especially rats and pigeons; believed that the results of these experiments allowed him to develop the theory of operant conditioning, which, according to his theory, learning can be programmed by whatever consequence follows a particular behavior

Erik Erickson – psychologist who believed that humans have to resolve different conflicts as they progress through each stage of development in the life cycle

Jean Jacques Rousseau – believed that the natural goodness of man was warped by society

Carl Jung – felt that the sexual component was only one among many important factors in human personality development; believed that humans possess four major psychological functions: sensation, intuition, thinking, and feeling

Ivan Pavlov – studied the digestion of dogs and discovered that they associate sounds with food coming

Benjamin Spock – believed in behaviourism but viewed it from a different perspective; believed that a permissive approach to child rearing, rather than a strict one, would result in successful, well-adjusted adults

Albert Bandura – showed that learning is more complicated than a mere stimulus-response effect

Charles Darwin – English natural scientist who formulated a theory of evolution by natural selection

William Ogburn – examined the behavior of society and summarized his conclusions in his theory of cultural lag, which states that the acceptance of a new technology follows a three-phase process of invention, discovery and diffusion

Thomas Hobbes – English materialist and political philosopher who advocated absolute sovereignty as the only kind of government that could resolve problems caused by the selfishness of human beings

Stanley Milgram – psychologist who designed an experiment to gauge people’s reactions when the normal social rules for lineups and subway ridership are broken

Jean Piaget – psychologist remembered for his studies of cognitive development in children

Karl Marx – proposed that economic power, which leads to political power, is the key to understanding societies

FD Roosevelt – 32nd President of the United States and a central figure in world events during the mid-20th century, leading the United States during a time of worldwide economic crisis and world war

Otzi – nickname of a well preserved natural mummy of a man from 3300 B.C. found in 1991 in a glacier; by examining his entire body they could discover almost everything about him

John Locke – English empiricist philosopher who believed that all knowledge is derived from sensory experience

John Dewey – United States pragmatic philosopher who advocated progressive education

John M Keynes – was a British economist whose ideas have profoundly affected the theory and practice of modern macroeconomics, as well as the economic policies of governments

Abraham Maslow – American psychologist best known for his analysis of human needs; organized them into a hierarchy; these human needs, which we all try to satisfy, range from basic survival needs (food, clothing, and shelter), through the need for security, love, and esteem

Thomas Malthus – an English economist who argued that increases in...
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