is a severe inflammation of the brain, encephalitis is usually caused by a mosquito-borne or, in some areas, a tick borne virus. Viruses transmitted by anthropods are arboviruses (arthropodborne). Referred to as infectious viral encephalitides, encephalitis may occur also as a complication of systemic viral diseases such as poliomyelitis, rabies, or mononucleosis, or it may arise after recovery from viral infections such as rubella or rubeola.
SYNONYMS OR OTHER NAMES OF THE DISEASE
Encephalitis with meningitis is known as meningoencephalitis.
Epidemiology of the disease
Infection is the most common cause identified, with viruses being the most important known aetiological agents. Incidence varies between studies but is generally between 3.5 and 7.4 per 100,000 patient-years. Encephalitis affects peoples of all ages; however, incidence is higher in the paediatric population. Although both sexes are affected, most studies have shown a slight predominance in males. Encephalitis occurs worldwide;
Infection by arboviruses specific to rural areas. Infection by enteroviruses (coxsackievirus, poliovirus, and echovirus) in urban areas. Infection by other viruses, including west Nile virus, herpesvirus, mumps virus, human immunodeficiency virus, adenoviruses, and demyelinating disease after measles, varicella, rubella, or vaccination. MODE OF TRANSMISSION
Transmission by means other than arthropod bites may occur through ingestion of infected goats milk and accidental injection or inhalation of the virus. Incubation Period
After 9–12 days, incubation period – mosquitoes transmit disease to other vertebrate hosts. The average life of Culex mosquito is 21 days. Culex can fly over long distances of 4–5 kms. Epidemics occur during monsoon and post monsoon period because the year. CLINICAL SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS:
• The signs and symptoms of encephalitis are the same for adults and children. • Signs and symptoms may last...
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