Employment has emerged as an important subject in the development agenda of most national governments and several international organisations over the past two decades. In recent years, the processes of globalisation have also resulted in certain trends in labour markets in both the developed and developing countries.in the developing countries, fears have been expressed of displacement of workers in the hither to protected sectors as a result of international competition.
Current scenario of India:
As a belong to India, I would like to emphasize on the current education and employment scenario in India. In India, The educational system follows 12 years of schooling and then a 3-4 years of graduation course, and 2 years of post graduation course. India has a total of 253 universities and 12,732 colleges right now. Growth rate of employment is 3.29% in 2009. Highest rate of Employment is observed in agriculture , fishing and forestry- 296.62 million. The Lowest rate of employment is in Electricity, Gas and water supply – 1.5 million. The country is having a population of 1.2 billion while the total employment is 529.87 million. It indicates that major portion of the youth remain unemployed.
Major employment challenges in India:
India is the second most populous country in the world, with over 1.18 billion people (estimate for April, 2010), more than a sixth of the world's population. More than this every year about 5 million people become eligible for securing jobs. But the employment opportunities are much lower than the job seekers. 2. Poverty:
In India, Poverty often forces households to withdraw children from schools for reasons of both direct and opportunity costs. In addition, schools and the style of instruction are not always attractive for the children. In the case of girls, the familial attitude towards educating them continues to be discriminatory. As a result, Drop-out rates are high: at 40 per cent in the primary, 50 per cent in the middle and 66 per cent in the secondary stages of schooling for boys and 42 per cent, 58 per cent and 72 per cent at the three levels, for girls In rural families. 42 per cent of children said they wanted to be graduates and just 24 per cent wished to go in for a post-graduate degree. Even the choice of subject changed according to the occupation of parents--children of the salaried class were more likely to study engineering or medicine.
A part of the problem of employment has always been the result of a mismatch between qualitative aspects of the supply and demand of labour: demand has remained unfulfilled due to non-availability of workers with requisite skills and workers have remained unemployed or underemployed as they have no skills or their skills have no demand. This mismatch seems to have grown in recent years due to fast changes in production technologies and structures to which the skill supply mechanisms and institutions have not been quick enough to respond.
4. Rate of Literacy:
39 per cent of the Indian workforce in the 15 years and above age group is illiterate; another 23 per cent have studied only up to the primary level. Only 22 per cent have secondary and higher level of education.
5. No of colleges:
India has a total of 253 universities and 12,732 colleges right now. If we take the total population in the relevant age group and divide this by the number of colleges/universities, then it shows that, at the all-India level, each university will have to cater for around 250,000-300,000 students--while that's about the size of Delhi University, there aren't too many universities of this size in the country, nor are many being planned.
6. Educational Infrastructure:
The infrastructure and curriculum of the school and colleges suffer from lack of adequate technologies, Shortage of funds. The curriculum of professional colleges are not updated to met the requirements...