Employee Welfare

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Employee Morale refers to an attitude of satisfaction with a desire to continue and strive for attaining the objectives of a factory. Morale is purely emotional. It is an attitude of an employee towards his job, his superior and his organization. It is not static thing, but it changes depending on working conditions, superiors, fellow workers pay and so on.

Morale may range from very high to very low. High Morale is evident from the positive feelings of employees such as enthusiasm, desire to obey orders, willingness to co-operate with coworkers. Poor or low Morale becomes obvious from the negative feelings of employees such as dissatisfaction, discouragement or dislike of the job.

Morale is a fundamental psychological concept. It is not easy to define. Morale is the degree of enthusiasm and willingness with which the members of a group pull together to achieve group goal. It has been defined differently by different authors. Different definition of Morale can be classified into three major approaches. 1) Classical approach

2) Psychological approach
3) Social approach

1. Classical approach: According to this approach the satisfaction of basic needs is the symbol of Morale.  According to Robert M. Guion "Morale is defined as the extent to which the individual perceives that satisfaction stemming from total job satisfaction".

2. Psychological Approach: According to this approach Morale is psychological concept i.e., state of mind. According to Jurious Fillipo “Morale is a mental condition or attitude of individual and groups which determines their willingness to cooperate".

3. Social Approach: According to some experts Morale is a social phenomenon. According to Davis "Morale can be defined as the attitudes of individual and groups towards their work environment and towards voluntary cooperation to the full extent of their ability in the best interest at the organization".

Importance of Employee Morale:
Employee Morale plays vital role in the origination success. High Morale leads to success and low Morale brings to defeat in its wake. The plays of Morale is no less important for an industrial undertaking. The success of failure of the industry much depends up on the Morale of its employees.

Types of Morale:
I. High Morale: 
It will lead to enthusiasm among the workers for better performance. High Morale is needed a manifestation of the employees strength, dependability pride, confidence and devotion. Some of the advantages of high Morale such as: 1. Willing cooperation towards objectives of the organization. 2. Loyalty to the organization and its leadership.

3. Good Leadership.
4. Sound superior subordinate relations.
5. High degree of employee’s interest in their job and organization.  6. Pribe in the organization
7. Reduction in absenteeism and labour turnover.
8. Reduction in grievance.
9. Reduction in industrial conflict.
10. Team building.
11. Employee empowerment.

II. Low Morale:
Low Morale indicates the presence of mental unrest. The mental unrest not only hampers production but also leads to ill health of the employees. Low Morale exists when doubt in suspicion are common and when individuals are depressed and discouraged i.e., there is a lot of mental tension. Such situation will have the following adverse consequences. 1. High rates of absenteeism and labour turnover.

2. Decreased quality.
3. Decreased Productivity.
4. Excessive Complaints and Grievances.
5. Frustration among the workers.
6. Lack of discipline.
7. Increase errors, accidents or injuries. 

Employee Morale is a very complex phenomenon and is influenced by many factors on the shop floor. Several criteria seem important in the determinants of levels of workers Morale such as:

1. Objectives of the organization: Employees are highly motivated and their Morale is highly if their individual goal and objectives are in tune with...
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