Table Of Content
Introduction The self and society Older adult in society Policy issues in an aging society Continuity and change in PD Discontinuity in PD: What theories says?: Erik Erikson Robert Peck Daniel Levinson Bernice Neugarten
Life Review and Wisdom Age stratification approach Successful aging secret Disengagement theory Activity Theory Continuity Theory
Unit 6 Late Adulthood Personality Development
Spouse Social Support Grandparenting Retirement
Atchley’s stage Stress of retirement Successful retirement Other issues
Life satisfaction of late adulthood
Learning Unit Objectives
Discuss about older adult in society and policy issues in an aging society Discuss about continuity and change in PD as well as discontinuity in PD Discuss about Life Review and Wisdom Discuss about Age Stratification approach Discuss about theories of Successful Aging Secret Discuss about Social Support and Grandparenting Discuss about Retirement and issues related to it Discuss about Life satisfaction of Late Adulthood
Late adulthood is the term coined by developmental psychologist describing the period in an individual’s life beginning at ages sixty or seventy and ending at death. Late adulthood as a period of considerable diversity in which people change. Growth in some areas, decline in others.
The Self and Society
1- Self esteem
increased in the 20s, levelled off in the 30s and 40s, rose considerably in 50s and 60s, and then dropped significantly in 70s and 80s. Male higher than female (most of adult years) During 70s and 80s, female and male converged (join together).
2- Possible Selves
Refer to what individuals might become, what they would like to become and what they are afraid of becoming.
Why the level of self esteem declined?
deteriorating physical health and negative societal attitudes toward older adults. being widowed, institutionalized or physically impaired, having low religious commitment, and decline in health conditions.
3- Self Acceptance
Based on study, self acceptance of individuals at different points in adults development depended on whether they were describing their past, present, future or ideal selves. There was little difference in acceptance of various selves because of decreased acceptance of ideal and future selves and increased acceptance of past selves.
4- Self Control
the ability to control one's emotions, behaviour and desires. In psychology, it is sometimes called self regulation. Based on research (60-90 years), self control was lowest in physical domain and in another study, perceived self control declined in cognitive functioning.
Older Adults in Society
Stereotyping Older Adults : social participation by older adults is often discouraged by ageism. - Ageism = prejudice against others because of their age,
Policy Issues in an Aging Society
1- Status of Economy 2- Health Care 3- Eldercare- physical and emotional caretaking of older members of the family, whether that care is day to day physical assistance or responsibility for arranging and overseeing such care. 4- Generational Inequity- the view that our aging society is being unfair to its younger members because older adults pile up advantages receiving inequitably large allocations of resources. Issues to be concerned: Income, living arrangements and technology
especially prejudice against older adults.
- They are perceived as incapable of thinking clearly,
learning new things, enjoying sex, contributing to the community and holding responsible jobs. - Research indicates that the most frequent form is disrespect for older adults, followed by assumptions about ailments or sickness caused by age.
How is old age divided?
Some researchers divide aging people into three groups:
Continuity and Change in Personality
Fundamental continuity to personality
Despite this general stability of basic personality traits, there is still the possibility of...