Some warm-up exercises
Motivation, talent, experience, wisdom, opportunities
Before you jump into the material, or at least at some stage in your research, try the following warm-up exercises to develop your thinking. Write down what you think: •Motivates a member of a government cabinet?
•Motivates a member of a board of directors of a commercial organization? •Motivates a member of a board of directors of a non-commercial organization? •Motivates a middle ranking member of the above organizations? •Motivates a junior / low ranking member of the above organizations. •Motivates Madonna?
•What has and does now, motivate Bob Dylan?
•Motivated the great classical composers (maestros Bach, Handel, Mozart, Wagner, Chopin etc?) •Motivated great, truly remarkable figures from history, the simple clockmaker John Harrison, Galileo, Newton, Lord Nelson, Florence Nightingale, Gandhi, Mandela, or any other historical figures you are familiar with? •Using hindsight, what has made the above historical figures and the others you are familiar with great and their legacy so enduring? •Motivated, until fairly recently (due to the discovery of diamonds on their lands) the Saan or Bushman people of the Kalahari? (They are hunter / gathers whose lifestyle, in probably the harshest environment on earth, has not changed in the 20,000 years of their recorded history (their rock paintings.)) •Motivates a Buddhist monk (everything means nothing and achieving nothing(ness) means everything)? •Motivates the members of the lowest income group in your society? •Motivates the members of the middle income group in your society? •Motivates the members of the highest income group in your society? •In general, motivates people in a developing country?
•In general, motivates people in a developed country?
•Look around you, draw on your life experiences and sense of humanity, and determine who you think are the happiest people in the world and why?
Introduction to Motivation
At one time, employees were considered just another input into the production of goods and services. What perhaps changed this way of thinking about employees was research, referred to as the Hawthorne Studies, conducted by Elton Mayo from 1924 to 1932 (Dickson, 1973). This study found employees are not motivated solely by money and employee behavior is linked to their attitudes (Dickson, 1973). The Hawthorne Studies began the human relations approach to management, whereby the needs and motivation of employees become the primary focus of managers (Bedeian, 1993).
Understanding what motivated employees and how they were motivated was the focus of many researchers following the publication of the Hawthorne Study results (Terpstra, 1979). Five major approaches that have led to our understanding of motivation are Maslow's need-hierarchy theory, Herzberg's two- factor theory, Vroom's expectancy theory, Adams' equity theory, and Skinner's reinforcement theory. According to Maslow, employees have five levels of needs (Maslow, 1943): physiological, safety, social, ego, and self- actualizing. Maslow argued that lower level needs had to be satisfied before the next higher level need would motivate employees. Herzberg's work categorized motivation into two factors: motivators and hygienes (Herzberg, Mausner, & Snyderman, 1959). Motivator or intrinsic factors, such as achievement and recognition, produce job satisfaction. Hygiene or extrinsic factors, such as pay and job security, produce job dissatisfaction. Vroom's theory is based on the belief that employee effort will lead to performance and performance will lead to rewards (Vroom, 1964). Rewards may be either positive or negative. The more positive the reward the more likely the employee will be highly motivated. Conversely, the more negative the reward the less likely the employee will be motivated. Adams' theory...