LITERATURE REVIEW On Employee Engagement
In today’s age where companies are losing talent with every passing day, it’s not enough to keep employees only happy and satisfied. To retain employees it is also imperative to engage them suitably. An engaged employee is someone who is on a mission everyday, which a satisfied employee may not be. Engaged employees always strive to exceed the expectations of their supervisors and are self- motivated to attain their goals. According to WH Macey… - Industrial and Organizational Psychology…, 2008 The meaning of employee engagement is ambiguous among both academic researchers and among practitioners who use it in conversations with clients. We show that the term is used at different times to refer to psychological states, traits, and behaviors as well as their antecedents and outcomes. Drawing on diverse relevant literatures, we offer a series of propositions about (a) psychological state engagement; (b) behavioral engagement; and (c) trait engagement. In addition, we offer propositions regarding the effects of job attributes and leadership as main effects on state and behavioral engagement and as moderators of the relationships among the 3 facets of engagement. We conclude with thoughts about the measurement of the 3 facets of engagement and potential antecedents, especially measurement via employee surveys. According to Harter, James K.; Schmidt, Frank L.; Hayes, Theodore L.- Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol 87(2), Apr 2002, 268-279. Based on 7,939 business units in 36 companies, this study used meta-analysis to examine the relationship at the business-unit level between employee satisfaction-engagement and the business-unit outcomes of customer satisfaction, productivity, profit, employee turnover, and accidents. Generalizable relationships large enough to have substantial practical value were found between unit-level employee satisfaction-engagement and these business-unit outcomes. One implication is that changes...
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