Employee Engagement

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Employee Engagement

SIES College of Management Studies Working Paper Series

The Working Paper Series would attempt to disseminate the findings of research in specific areas and also to facilitate discussions and sharing of perspectives and information about the identified areas. The papers carry the names of the authors and should be cited accordingly. The views, findings, and interpretations expressed in this paper are entirely those of the authors. They do not represent the views of SIESCOMS and its management. These working papers would be available online at www.siescoms.edu. No part of the paper can be reproduced in any form without the prior permission of the author. However, they can be quoted by citing the reference.

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Working Paper 05/07

Employee Engagement
Nitin Vazirani Dean in OB and HR SIES College of Management Studies Nerul nitin@siescoms.edu

Abstract
Employee engagement is the level of commitment and involvement an employee has towards their organization and its values. An engaged employee is aware of business context, and works with colleagues to improve performance within the job for the benefit of the organization. It is a positive attitude held by the employees towards the organization and its values. The paper focuses on how employee engagement is an antecedent of job involvement and what should company do to make the employees engaged. The paper also looks at the Gallup 12 point questionnaire, twelve-question survey that identifies strong feelings of employee engagement and the steps which shows how to drive an engaged employee.

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Introduction Engagement at work was conceptualized by Kahn, (1990) as the ‘harnessing of organizational members’ selves to their work roles. In engagement, people employ and express themselves physically, cognitively, and emotionally during role performances. The second related construct to engagement in organizational behavior is the notion of flow advanced by Csikszentmihalyi (1975, 1990). Csikzentmihalyi (1975) defines flow as the ‘holistic sensation’ that, people feel when they act with total involvement. Flow is the state in which there is little distinction between the self and environment. When individuals are in Flow State little conscious control is necessary for their actions. Employee engagement is the thus the level of commitment and involvement an employee has towards their organization and its values. An engaged employee is aware of business context, and works with colleagues to improve performance within the job for the benefit of the organization. The organization must work to develop and nurture engagement, which requires a two-way relationship between employer and employee.’ Thus Employee engagement is a barometer that determines the association of a person with the organization Engagement is most closely associated with the existing construction of job involvement (Brown 1996) and flow (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990). Job involvement is defined as ‘the degree to which the job situation is central to the person and his or her identity (Lawler & Hall, 1970). Kanungo (1982) maintained that job involvement is a ‘Cognitive or belief state of Psychological identification. Job involvement is thought to depend on both need saliency and the potential of a job to satisfy these needs. Thus job involvement results form a cognitive judgment about the needs satisfying abilities of the job. Jobs in this view are tied to one’s self image. Engagement differs from job in as it is concerned more with how the individual employees his/her self during the performance of his / her job. Furthermore engagement entails the active use of emotions. Finally engagement may be thought of as an antecedent to job involvement in that individuals who experience deep engagement in their roles should come to identify with their jobs.

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When Kahn talked about employee engagement he has given important to all three aspects physically, cognitively and...
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