In the late nineteenth century, Europe, Japan, and the United States were in a vicious rush to occupy more and more territory. They acquired parts of Asia and Latin America, and among the three of them, almost all of the African continent. This race of empires had many motivations, both economic and political. Many people had differing opinions on this surge of imperialism, some the most significant being J. A. Hobson, a British social critic and author of Imperialism, Rudyard Kipling, and Indian born newspaper correspondent, poet, and author of The White Man's Burden, Frederick Lugard, a British soldier, imperial administrator, and author of The Scramble for Africa, and Albert Beveridge, an American historian, representative, and author of Defense of Imperialism. These men had differing opinions of the goings-on of the time, and had very different motivations for thinking the way did.
The first question to consider is why these nations strove to make colonies in such undeveloped countries. According to Hobson and Lugard, the answer is simply monetary. The governments (in particular, the British government) came into these countries for various reasons and invested so much, that to not take advantage of whatever resources they possessed would be an injustice. Hobson considered this to be horrible and treacherous, but Lugard saw it as a needed way to continue the British empire. But to Kipling and Beveridge, the motivation is far more important than simple money. Kipling believed that the white man had a genetic duty to rule the subordinate races. This was a popular mind-set at the time and Kipling firmly up-holded the belief that it must be done. Beveridge's opinion was that America was God's country and had the duty to spread its freedom and democracy across the world. These countries were ruled by vicious monarchies who needed America's help. Besides, Germany, France, and England were doing it, so what right didn't the American people have to...
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