Emphysema

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I. INTRODUCTION
The respiratory system is defined as group of organs in the body that are responsible for taking in oxygen and breathing out carbon dioxide. The primary function of the respiratory system is to supply the blood with oxygen in order for the blood to deliver oxygen to all parts of the body. The respiratory system does this through breathing. When we breathe, we inhale oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide. This exchange of gases is the respiratory system's means of getting oxygen to the blood. Respiration is achieved through the mouth, nose, trachea, lungs, and diaphragm. One of the common respiratory diseases is Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a disease characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. COPD may include diseases that cause airflow obstruction. Under these diseases is emphysema. Emphysema is a pathologic term that describes an abnormal distention of the air spaces beyond the terminal bronchioles, with destruction of the walls of the alveoli. As the walls of the alveoli are destroyed, the alveolar surface are in direct contact with the pulmonary capillaries continually decreases, causing an increase in dead space and impaired oxygen diffusion which leads to hypoxemia.

A. CURRENT TRENDS ABOUT DISEASE CONDITION
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease is a growing cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The WHO Burden of Disease Project estimated that COPD was the fifth leading cause of death worldwide in 2001 and will be the third leading cause by 2020. The 1998 World Health Organization report state that non-communicable diseases, including COPD is the cause of nearly 40% of all deaths in developing countries and that these areas account s for 67% of all COPD deaths worldwide. In 1987, The Philippines estimated the prevalence of COPD based on spirometric measurements to be 3.7%. In 2007, the prevalence of COPD in the Philippines was reported 13.8% among those who were 40 years old and above. COPD was noted to be greater in men (19.6%) than in women (8.6%) and its prevalence increased steadily with age for both men and women. The Philippines, with Manila City as its study site, ranked third highest in prevalence of COPD stage II or higher among the countries which participated in the Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease (BOLD) study.

B. REASONS FOR CHOOSING SUCH CASE PRESENTATION
Being situated in the male ward of the Guimba District Hospital, my partner and I saw the different illnesses that patients in the male ward could experience. We saw that one of the diseases that occurred to them is emphysema which is a category of COPD. Upon seeing this we decided to make this as the focus of our case study. This is for us to have an idea on what are the contributing factors to this specific disease and why is it more prominent to male patients.

II. OBJECTIVES

NURSE CENTERED OBJECTIVES
After this case study, the student nurses will be able to:
* Apply nursing principles, concepts, and theories in providing nursing care to patient with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). * Identify possible complications that can arise to the patient with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and assist in the prevention of it. * Have knowledge about the different diagnostic and laboratory procedures given to the patient like blood hematology, arterial blood gas analysis, and sputum examination. * Increase awareness and be more familiar with the disease processes, treatment and prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD).

PATIENT CENTERED OBJECTIVES
After this case study, the student nurses will be able to:
* Apply nursing principles, concepts, and theories in providing nursing care to patients. * Develop strategies for planning, providing, and evaluating nursing care to patients. * Implement appropriate nursing intervention to satisfy the patient’s needs. *...
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