August 12, 2012
This paper examines how emotional intelligence and cognitive intelligence are associated with academic success and job performance. Emotional intelligence continues to pick up momentum in the world of business and academia. More and more research supports the concept that emotionally intelligent employees, managers, leaders, and companies produce noticeable business results. Employers are now looking for emotional intelligence in their potential employees and leaders and utilizing assessments and directed interviews to assess a potential hire’s emotional intelligence skills. Research has shown that emotional intelligence skills are important to success on the job. The lack of emotional intelligence can break or significantly slow a professional's career progression in today's complex world. An individual with emotional intelligence definitely will be a part of the finest in this complex world and will have the ability to survive its ups and downs with dignity and grace, while successfully adding value in his/her professional and personal life.
What is emotional intelligence? Emotional intelligence (EI) refers to the ability to perceive, control and evaluate emotions. This concept was firstly developed in 1990 by two American university professors, John Mayer and Peter Salovey and they concluded that, people with high emotional quotient are supposed to learn more quickly due to their abilities. In 1995 another psychologist named Daniel Goleman extended the theory and also made it well-known. In his articles and books, he argued that people with high emotional quotient do better than those with low emotional quotient.
The term "emotional intelligence" debuted in several scientific articles written by John D. Mayer and Peter Salovey during the early 1990s. The researchers defined emotional intelligence as the compilation of four kinds of skills: perceiving and expressing emotions, understanding emotions, using emotions, and managing emotions. These insightful publications helped pave the way for the 1995 best-seller Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More Than IQ and Working with Emotional Intelligence by New York Times behavioral science columnist Daniel Goleman, which brought emotional intelligence into the mainstream of business. According to Peter Salovey, chairman of the Department of Psychology at Yale University, "Prior to 1995, only other psychologists had heard of emotional intelligence. Goleman’s first book made the term a household word (Simmons, 2001).
Emotional intelligence provides a significant contribution to our understanding of relationships in the work place. Mayer and Salovey’s conceptualization of emotional intelligence focused on emotional abilities that link emotion and cognition, while other definitions, for example Goleman’s definition, incorporate social and emotional competencies including some personality traits and attitudes. Mayer and Salovey’s model of emotional intelligence that encompasses (a) emotional awareness, (b) emotional facilitation, (c) emotional knowledge, and (d) emotional regulation. This model emphasizes that emotional intelligence is a multi-dimensional construct and that these four steps are iterative in that each of the abilities can contribute to enhancing other abilities. For instance, in reflecting on reactions during a crisis situation, an individual’s emotional self-awareness can contribute to a better understanding of the emotions involved (Jordan, 2004).
Salovey and Mayer proposed a model that identified four different factors of emotional intelligence: the perception of emotion, the ability reason using emotions, the ability to understand emotion and the ability to manage emotions.
1. Perceiving Emotions: The first step in understanding emotions is to accurately perceive them. In many cases, this might involve understanding...