Umair Aftab#1, Fazal-e-Rehman Khan*2, Junaid Malik#3,Muzaffar Khan#4 Hassam Ali Khan#5 #
Department of Electrical Engineering, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences NUST National University of Sciences and Technology Campus H-12 Islamabad #44000 Pakistan 1
Abstract— With world moving towards smart solutions,
particularly smart grid and smart-intelligent buildings, naturally comes an exponential increase in the embedded and integrated electrical systems. This also brings forth an inherent problem of over flooding of the space with such signals. The tremendous overflow of electrical signal throughout the cities, particularly in and around the buildings, there’s a serious concern about its effects both to the near operating appliances and human and
As the infrastructure becomes more reliant on such
technologies, many of the fundamental tasks will be
automated. But with plethora of such systems operating
simultaneously and in close vicinity puts a question mark on their reliability. We will address such topics in our review. We will focus on the mobile devices component of the sma rt grid and buildings and its effects on the integrated smart
appliances and the Electro-magnetic compatibility and
interference issues and challenges countered and faced in the development of such systems which enable such a smart grid
power infrastructure to communicate and co-ordinate among
the various components of the system which enable it to
A. Wi-Fi based Smart Networks:
Wi-Fi is a shared medium that operates in the unlicensed
RFs within the 2.4GHz and 5GHz range. When an 802.11
client device hears another signal, whether it is a Wi-Fi signal or not, it will defer transmission until the signal ceases.
Interference that occurs during transmission also causes
packet loss, which forces Wi-Fi retransmissions. These
retransmissions slow throughput and result in wildly
fluctuating performance for all users sharing a given access point (AP).
B. Power Line Communication:
Power line communications are systems for carrying data
on a conductor also used for electric power transmission.
Electrical power is transmitted over long distances using high voltage transmission lines, distributed over medium voltages, and used inside buildings at lower voltages. PLC technologies limit themselves to one set of wires, but some can cross
between two levels (for example, both the distribution
network and premises wiring). Typically transformers prevent propagating the signal, which requires multiple technologies to form very large networks.
C. Fiber Optic Communication Networks:
In Fiber Optic Lines, the light forms an electromagnetic
carrier wave that is modulated to carry information. The main benefits of fiber are its exceptionally low loss (allowing long distances between amplifiers/repeaters), its absence of ground currents and other parasite signal and power issues common to long parallel electric conductor runs (due to its reliance on light rather than electricity for transmission, and the dielectric nature of fiber optic), and its inherently high data -carrying capacity.
D. GSM and RF based Smart Networks:
In a cellular system like GSM, frequency re-use is achieved
by assigning a subset of the total number of channels available to each base station, and controlling the power output of the transmitters. In this way, cellular networks increase capacity (number of channels available to users). Adjacent cells are not allowed to operate at the same frequency since this causes
interference. Decreasing the cell size increases the frequency of handovers, since a moving cellular phone would be
changing cells more often. Since the MSC needs time to
switch (for handovers), increasing the handovers will increase that time delay.