Emerging World Order

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Chapter 2
Emerging World Order in the post cold War Era
After the end of second world war, international politics was dominated by the cold war for almost four decades, thus resulting in ideological, philosophical, military and strategic change that completely altered the complexion of world politics. During the whole period of cold-war, the two superpowers namely the United States and the USSR tended to divide up the world into their own sphere of influence. Both the superpowers competed to win the loyalty particularly of the newly emergent states. A path breaking posture and philosophy of Non-Alignment made its appearance carving a new pattern in international politics. The dawn of the nuclear age set the pace for galloping technological advancement which today touches every aspect of man while at the same time posing a threat to his survival.

The collapse of Soviet Union has produced the greatest change in world power relationships since second World War. The end of the cold war and simultaneous growth of globalization have radically changed the political and economic structures and processes of the world in a substantial manner. Politically the world is no more bipolar as it is used to be during cold war, rather a peculiar situation having edge towards unipolarity has emerged. Even the nuclear club of P-5 has been extended to P-8 (though not recognized) with the addition of India, Pakistan and North-Korea. New permutation and combinations are being framed in the forms of regional groupings. Existing global institutional organization is being marginalized to the extent of facing crisis of relevance. Third worldlism has also become insignificant with the reduced status of the forum like NAM1. The other great change is seen in the field of economics. The concept of globalization has led many to believe that in the new era economics will precede geopolitics in determining relations among states. Information Technology is creating a ‘woven world’ by promoting communication, integration and contact at a pace of change that far outruns the ability of any government to manage. Global interconnectedness and interdependence has become a compelling reality. Free markets and open economies fused together with principles of liberal democracy has come to represent the inescapable devices of both material as well as human progress2. It is certain that the world has undergone tremendous changes and adjustments both in its structural, as well as, in its operational dynamics. Then it is also true that though two decades have passed, yet world is still surrounded by ambiguity and instability. Due to the amorphous nature of complex changes a theorization of this transition is not only very difficult but also intractable. It is being realized that in the new context politically segmenting the globe into ‘‘three worlds’’ is obsolete and economically the division of the world into “two worlds” (North and South) is also no longer possible to sustain. Rather in the process of analyzing globalization of the world in terms of “post-coloniality” and “post-socialism” will be more appropriate. But here also due to the lack of convergence of interests between them, the two are not likely to be able to oppose the onslaught of globalization3. Thus understanding the international system in the age of globalization is full of uncertainties. In another context, the international relations are being evaluated in the post-globalization era, it is found that conceptually it is a period of marked transition to challenge the hegemony of statist notion of the national interest. New agenda recast in the era includes issues like global political economy, the environment, social movements, non-government organizations (NGOs) civil society, global governance, trans-nationalized forms of violence, etc4. Concurrently a whole host of global cross-cutting challenges have emerged. These includes international terrorism, drug-trafficking, maritime...
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