Question 1. Sociology emerged as an attempt to understand modern society.
Sociology is ‘the study of the development, structure and functioning of human society’ and therefore is pertinent to our very existence as human beings. Sociology shines a revealing light on our everyday practices and examines the question 'why do people do that?' Sociology today has emerged as an attempt to understand why our past behaviour and our past beliefs are part of the times we live in. The emergence of sociology began as an attempt to understand what are the determining factors of the world changing.
As has been pointed out by Rocher, G. Introduction to Sociology pg. 210 Macmillan Co. of Canada 1972), "the advancement of the study of sociology, and its principal support, is its desire to understand modern society much better. Sociology research was developed to try and describe these changes and to predict future events."
To understand modernity and why it is impressionable, it is important to compare current society with that of the past. When we examine the changes in social behavior we see that these changes result from the adjustments in industrial development and religious beliefs. Society shifts with the introduction of new technologies and the availability of education throughout and thus allows us to understand what developments have occurred and why they have come about.
Sociologists such as Marx, Comte and Durkheim explore the development of sociology today and examine what has brought about the shifts in society. These founders of sociology look to understand why these changes came about. Comte, Marx and Durkheim became aware of the need to study society in its current form as opposed to the tendency of past philosophers on "imagining the ideal society" (Macionis, Plummer, 1997, p.15).
One factor, which has had an immense impact on the change and development of society, was the industrial revolution. The industrial revolution began in England during the second half of the 18th century. The industrial revolution involved a transition from heavy reliance on agricultural production to reliance on the manufacture of goods. According to (A. Gliddens and P.W Sutton, Sociology seventh edition, page 72 Polity Press 2013) "The industrial revolution radically transformed material conditions of life and ways of making a living forever, initially bringing with it many new social problems such as urban overcrowding, poor sanitation, disease and industrial pollution on an unprecedented scale. Social reformers looked for ways to mitigate and solve these problems, which led them to gather evidence on their extent and nature to reinforce the case for change." It also created new profound changes in the economics of society. Many peasant workers left their agricultural work to go and seek work in industrial factories in the overgrowing cities.
The developments during the industrial revolution resulted in a shift in transportation, the introduction of the steam engine and as a direct result the availability of information. Industrialisation bought about great wealth and improved living conditions for some but it left the large majority of workers with poor living and employment conditions. The working class was devoid of any industrial rights and the use of children in factories provided cheap labour. The system proved that only some people were profiting whilst the greater number of people worked for longer hours and received lower wages. This led to dissatisfaction and as a result led to the labour movement and other radical movements dedicated to overthrowing the capitalist system.
The industrial revolution forced many people to move into urban areas and the expansion of cities led to an increase in social problems, which attracted the attention of sociologists. Sociologist, Karl Marx was very critical of the capitalist society in his writings and was actively political to encourage its failure. Since the...
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