ID130 Week 3 Assignment 1 Transforming Surface Appearance Embellishing Fabric Surfaces - the purpose of this technique is to create items such as needlepoint pictures, quilts, doilies, crewel pillow covering, and soft sculptures on curtain fabrics or tabletop accessories (Textiles). This technique is accomplished by many techniques such is needle point stitching also referred to as canvas embroidering which is where yarn is used to cover all or part of the fabric. Improving the Quality and Serviceability of Structural Features Reducing Pilling – Piling is something that occurs when abrasive forces cause fibers to roll up in minute balls that cling to the surface of the fabric, pilling can be reduced by singeing. Singeing is when small gas flames are used to burn away loose fibers (Textiles). Some fabrics like those made of thermoplastic fibers cannot be singed because the heat would melt the fabric. Instead hot, smooth metal plates are used to soften and shrink the fibers so they can be sheared from the surface. Wool and silk fibers also aren’t singed because it leaves a crusty residue when exposed to flames. Engineering Functional Performance Increasing Water Repellency – Silicones compounds are used to reduce the rate at which water is absorb. These compounds do not offer much protection against oily soiling and staining. The use of these compounds is fading in favor of the use of fluorocarbon compounds which provides both water and soil resistance (Textiles). Sources Amy, Willbanks, Oxford Nancy , Miller Dana, and Coleman Sharon. Textiles for Residential & Commercial Interiors. third. Fairchild Books, 2010. 143-155. nPrint.