Elements of Philosophy

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Noemi Faith A. ReyesOC199
2008-30806 Prof. Villar

ONTOLOGY| EPISTEMOLOGY| METHODOLOGY| TELEOLOGY|
-“…is from the Greek and means the study of the ontos or of the one, the universe. It is the study of those universal concepts which apply to everything, as well as those specific concepts which apply to the most substantial dimensions of Being (Fox,1999, p.1).”-“…comes from the Greek Ontologia and means “talking” (-logia) about being (on/onto). It is a philosophical discipline which can be described as the science of existence or the study of being (Cimiano, 2006 p.9).”-“The study of being? The study of being what? Well, the term being, in ontological sense, is derived from the Greek word ousia, which roughly translated, meant “essence” or “substance”. Then, it is the study of the essence of being, or in other words, an exploration of the nature of reality and existence. In fact, you might find it helpful to mentally substitute the word existence or reality whenever you see the word being discussed in philosophy books. In any event, Ontology examines what can exist and hat can not exist, and it further breaks those distinctions down into categories as it explores whether things can change or are, in fact, eternal (Kardaras, 2011, pp.125-126).”-“There are several questions to ask about research, such as, How do researchers define reality? How do they know that what they define as real is real? (Rothe, 2000, p.11).”-“…the study of all pervading- structures of reality—not as they are found in objects, but as they can be discerned in the texture of being which precedes the subject-object split of reality (Tillich, 1948 as cited in Carey,1978 p.93)-“The fundamental questions in the field of ontology (which includes human beings as well as material matter) are ‘What can be said to exist? And ‘What is existence?’ It influences the epistemology and methodology of a research study (Daymon and Holloway, 2011, p.100 ).”-“…the science of something or of nothing , of being and not-being, of the thing and the mode of the thing, of substance and accident (Leibniz, 1903, p. 512 as cited in Hoekstra, 2009, p.76).”-“…regards “all the species of being qua being and the attributes which belong to it qua being (by Aristotle from Guarino, 1997 as cited in Hoekstra, 2009, p.76).”| -“…is a term coined by James Ferrier in 1854 to refer to what we now call “cognitive science”. It is synonymous with the philosophical foundations of the sciences. (Harrington, Marshall and Muller, 2006, p.171).”-comes from Greek words 'episteme' and 'logos', respectively meaning knowledge and discourse, thus means the discourse concerning with the manifold aspects of knowledge. It is the fruit of analytical thinking, rational outlook, keen observation, empirical experience, clear insight and critical knowledge (Na Kantācāmi, 2000).-“.. is the theory of knowledge and justified belief (Audi, 2003 p. 1060 as cited in Pernecky and Jamal, 2010).”--“…literally means “theory of knowledge.” It arose in the early history of Greek thought when Paramenides, Plato and Aristotle attempted to attain ineluctable certitude about the world. From a research point of view, epistemology includes presuppositions or standard beliefs about how people know and how researchers know what they know…it addresses how researchers view the nature, basis, and limits of knowledge, and the ways in which they separate knowledge from belief. (Maruyama, 1973 as cited in Rothe, 2000, p.10).” -“…is a science that identifies generalities (ie. General laws) about the effectiveness of particular reasoning processes and methods that are applicable across all contexts- such as subject domain, stage of development of discipline, goals of inquiry, persons and groups conducting the inquiry (Solomon, 1995, p.353 as cited in van Gigch, 2006).”-“… is the study of the nature of knowledge and justification; in particular the study of (a)the defining components, (b) the substantive...
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