Elementary: Education and Children

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Elementary and Secondary Education Act (1965)

“On April 9, 1965 Congress enacted the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA) (P.L. 89-10), the most expansive federal education bill ever passed.” “It is significant to note the bill was enacted less than three months after it was introduced, as part of President Lyndon B. Johnson’s “War on Poverty.”2 “Title I of ESEA reflected the presidential recommendation by providing that school districts with heavy concentrations of low-income families be the chief recipients of "compensatory education" benefits.”3 “Over time Title I of ESEA has become an important source of funding for local school districts.”4 “Generally it’s designed to aid school districts that have a high percentage of disadvantaged students.”5 “More specifically, the goal of the many programs funded under ESEA/Title I is to raise academic achievement by providing support for school-wide programs or for assistance to individual students.”6 “This Act also provided a mechanism to hold schools accountable and increase equality in education nationally.”7

There were many events and conflicts throughout the economy and government that led to the passage of this act. “Federal aid to education from 1954 to 1965 was increasingly evident in many areas, including desegregation, educational programs related to defense and vocation, aid to research relating to the education of the economic and culturally disadvantaged and aid to the handicapped.”8 “The post World War II technological and informational explosions, together with the increase in the numbers of children born, exposed serious deficiencies in the country's educational system.”9 “In addition, Brown v. Board of Education" stimulated concern over the lack of quality education to the economically deprived, and racial and ethnic minority groups.”10 “In proscribing de jure segregation, the Court in this case wrote: Today it is a principal instrument in awakening the child to cultural values,...
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