In this lab we use electrophilic addition of a hydrogen halide to an alkene to make 2-bromo-2-methylbutane. Electrophilic addition is an addition reaction where a pi bond is removed to create two new covalent bonds, Y-Z + C=C → Y-C-C-Z. Electrophilic addictions can also be the reverse of dehydrohalogenation. Dehydrohalogenation is when a double bond is formed between the α- and β-carbon. In this lab the addition of hydrogen bromide produces a more substituted alkyl halide with respect to Markovnikov's rule where the Bromine atom attaches to the more substituted carbon.**

**According to lab manual, www.wikipedia.com
PROCEDURE

First we mixed 25ml of hydrobromic acid and 10mlof amylene in a 50ml flask. Then we attach the apparatus and reflux the solution for 30 minutes by heating the solution until it boils, after this we allow the solution to cool down and then poured it into a125ml separatory funnel to drain and discard the lower spent acid layer. We washed the organic layer with a combination of 20ml of saturated sodium bicarbonate solution and 20ml of ether. Then we drained the lower aqueous layer and we kept the organic layer. We added 4 to 5 pellets of calcium chloride to the organic layer and allowed the solution to dry for 10 minutes. After this we placed the dry ether solution in a 50ml flask and fractionally...

...Old Dominion University
ORGANIC 214
Alkene Addition
Submitted by:
Alkene addition: Bromination of (E) Stilbene
Introduction:
In this lab we used the greener approach, which involves the addition of bromine across a double bond. When bromine reacts with E-stilbene (trans-1,2-diphenylethene), two new chiral carbons are created from the sp2 carbons, therefore 3 different dibrominated stereoisomers are possible: meso-(1R,2S), or the raceminc...

...Engineering Chemistry III
Prof. K. M. Muraleedharan
Aromatic electrophilic substitution (Ar-SE) Reactions
The special reactivity of aromatic systems towards electrophiles arises mainly from two factors: the presence of π electron density above and below the plane of the ring - making it nucleophilic, and the drive to regain the aromatic character by opting for substitution as opposed to a simple addition reaction. Preference towards addition...

...arithmetic circuit capable of performing both addition and subtraction on any two 4-bit binary numbers. The circuit has a Mode switch that allows you to choose between adding (M=0) and subtracting (M=1). To understand why this circuit works, let’s review binary addition and binary subtraction. We use 4-bit numbers in the examples because the main interactive circuit is a 4-bit adder–subtractor.
Binary addition is certainly easier than decimal...

...Lesson 3
Topic: Fractions
Subtopic: Addition and Subtraction of Fractions
Materials
• A set of paper strips with words written on it
• Fish bowl
Objectives
• To guess the word written on the paper strip
• To practice patience and understanding to those who can not get the answer correctly
Control of Error
• Teacher
Presentation
• The teacher will introduce the activity and give the instruction on what to do.
• She will ask for 5 pairs of volunteers from...

...Subtraction and Addition of Algebraic Expressions
Math 11
Objectives
The student should be able to:
Determine the degree of a polynomial
Identify the fundamental operations of polynomials
Definition of Terms
Algebraic expression is an expression involving constants and or variable, with all or some of the algebraic operations of addition, subtraction, division and multiplication
Definition of Terms
Components of an
Algebraic Expression...

...it was found out that Component method is the most accurate as its approach is purely theoretical, that is, all other physical factors are neglected leaving only the appropriate ones to be calculated. In addition, properties of these quantities such as associativity and commutativity of the addition operation were also explored.
1. Introduction
Vectors play an important role in many aspects of our everyday lives or of one’s daily routine. It is a mathematical...

...Addition and Subtraction of Integers
Addition of Positive Integers
Consider the addition of 2 + 3.
The plus sign, +, tells us to face the positive direction.
So, to evaluate 2 + 3, start at 2, face the positive direction and move 3 units forwards.
This suggests that:
Positive integers can be added like natural numbers.
Addition of Negative Integers
Consider the addition of (–2) + (–3)....

...Visit www.downloadmela.com for more papers
i had attended an off-campus interview of godrej. It starts on time so be on time.
it started with Box test. the question are as follows.
1) Box1
box2
box3
13
11
7
using ony addition and subtraction bring 19 in box1 and 30 in box3.
2) box1 contains Son's current age is 13 and box2 contains fathers current age is 58 box3
contain sum of father and son six yrs back.
bring father's age 13yrs before son was born in box 1 and sum...