MR.SHUKLA ATUL RAMPRAKASH
Roll No : 23.
Department/Division : EXTC/A.
PIN :ARMIET/ET 11 SA 42.
Contact No : 9867188366.
E-mail ID : firstname.lastname@example.org
Under the guidance of
MS.NALAM PRIYANKA RATNA
Alamuri Ratnamala Institute Of Engineering and Technology, Sapgaon
Date Of Submission :
Subject InCharge : MS.NALAM PRIYANKA RATNA
Sr.No| Contents| Page No.|
1.| Resistor| 4-8|
2.| Inductor| 9-13|
3.| Capacitor| 14-16|
4.| DC and AC Power Supply| 17-18|
5.| Cathode Ray Oscilloscope| 19-21|
6.| Digital Storage Oscilloscope| 22-24|
7.| 555 Timer IC| 25|
8.| IC 741| 26|
9.| Function Generator| 27-28|
10.| Differentiate between Rheostat and Potentiometer| 29|
A device used to control current in an electric circuit by providing Resistance is called Resistor. Resistors are "Passive Devices", that is they contain no source of power or amplification but only attenuate or reduce the voltage signal passing through them. Symbol of Resistor :
Types of Resistor :
There are many thousands of different Types of Resistors and are produced in a variety of forms because their particular characteristics and accuracy suit certain areas of application, such as High Stability, High Voltage, High Current etc. All modern fixed value resistors can be classified into four broad groups : * Carbon Composition Resistor - Made of carbon dust or graphite paste, low wattage values. | |
* Film or Cermet Resistor - Made from conductive metal oxide paste, very low wattage values. | |
Film or Cermet Resistor
* Wire-wound Resistor - Metallic bodies for heatsink mounting, very high wattage ratings | |
* Semiconductor Resistor - High frequency/precision surface mount thin film technology.
Resistor Colour Code
Resistors use coloured painted bands to indicate both their resistive value and their tolerance with the physical size of the resistor indicating its wattage rating. These coloured painted bands produce a system of identification generally known as a Resistors Colour Code.
4 Coloured Band Resistor
The Standard Resistor Colour Code Chart.
The Resistor Colour Code Table.
Colour| Digit| Multiplier| Tolerance|
Black| 0| 1| |
Brown| 1| 10| ± 1%|
Red| 2| 100| ± 2%|
Orange| 3| 1,000| |
Yellow| 4| 10,000| |
Green| 5| 100,000| ± 0.5%|
Blue| 6| 1,000,000| ± 0.25%|
Violet| 7| 10,000,000| ± 0.1%|
Grey| 8| | |
White| 9| | |
Gold| | 0.1| ± 5%|
Silver| | 0.01| ± 10%|
None| | | ± 20%|
Calculating Resistor Values
The Resistor Colour Code system is all well and good but we need to understand how to apply it in order to get the correct value of the resistor. The "left-hand" or the most significant coloured band is the band which is nearest to a connecting lead with the colour coded bands being read from left-to-right as follows;
Digit, Digit, Multiplier = Colour, Colour x 10 colour in Ohm's (Ω's)
For example, a resistor has the following coloured markings; Yellow Violet Red = 4 7 2 = 4 7 x 102 = 4700Ω or 4k7. The fourth and fifth bands are used to determine the percentage tolerance of the resistor. Resistor tolerance is a measure of the resistors variation from the specified resistive value and is a consequence of the manufacturing process and is expressed as a percentage of its "nominal" or preferred value. Typical resistor tolerances for film resistors range from 1% to 10% while carbon resistors have tolerances up to 20%. Resistors with tolerances lower than 2% are called precision resistors with the or lower tolerance resistors being more expensive. Most five band resistors are precision resistors with tolerances of either...