refers to the degree of randomness, lack of organization, or disorder in a situation. Information theory measures the quantities of all kinds of information in terms of bits (binary digit).the amount of information according to Shannon is equal to entropy. 8 http://communicationtheory.org/shannon-and-weaver-model-of-communication/ Says what?
is the opposite of information. Something that is redundant adds little, if any, information to a message. Redundancy is important because it helps combat noise in a communication system, e.g. in repeating the message. A code-
is a language or other set of symbols or signs that can be used to transmit a thought through one or more channels to elicit a response in a receiver or decoder. Efficiency-
refers to the bits of information per second that can be sent and received Distortion-
is the alteration of the original shape or other characteristic of an object, image, sound, waveform or other form of information or representation. Distortion is usually unwanted, and often many methods are employed to minimize it in practice. 9 The original model consisted of five elements:
● Information source, which has to express the purpose in a form of a message. The message has to be conveyed in the form of code. The communication encoder is responsible for taking the ideas of the source and putting them in code, expressing the source's purpose in the form of a message. ● Transmitter/encoder or the electronic device, which converts/encodes the message into signals ● Channel, the messages are transferred from encoder to decoder through a channel. During this process, if the message get distorted in the channel, it will then affect the communication flow or the receiver may not receive the correct message. ● Receiver/decoder, which decodes (reconstructs) the message from the signal. For communication to occur there must be somebody at the other end of the channel – this is 9 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Distortion)
called the receiver. It is important that the information transmitters and receivers have similar systems. If this is missing, communication cannot occur. The receiver needs to have the equipment to receive the message. ● Destination, where the message arrives.
The Message is what communication is all about. Whatever is communicated is the message and whenever we are in contact with others, both parts are involved in sending and receiving messages. The sixth element is the “noise source”, which is also called semantic noise, and refers to any source that interferes with the communication. Examples of semantic noise could be distraction, differences in the use of code, emphasizing the wrong part of the message or/and an attitude towards the sender. Many times a person sending a message chooses to use words and phrases that have a certain meaning to him or her. However, they may have an altogether different meaning to individuals receiving the message. In the interest of good communication, the level of semantic noise must be kept as low as possible. 10 188.8.131.52 Theory Critique
● The model is too mathematical to take the complexity of human sociological or psychological aspects into account ● It is a Sender and Receive based model, and it is quite clear that the sender is playing an active role and the receiver plays the passive role, where in the school’s electronic communication system the reciever also has to play an active role. ● The linearity of the model, which made the communication process into a one way process, is generally considered a weakness. ● The model lacks a term of feedback or reaction from the receiver. Feedback is important in communication as it helps sender to adjust their performance to the needs and responses 10 http://extension.missouri.edu/p/CM109#shannon
of the receiver. A 'feedback loop' was added by later theorists, but the...