Electrolyte Chart

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Electrolyte| Hypo| Cause| Clinical Manifestations| Hyper| Cause| Clinical Manifestations| Sodium (Na+)| <125 meq/L| * Inadequate intake * Hypoaldesteronism * Excessive diuretic therapy * Furosemide * Ethacrinic acid * Thiazides| * Extracellular volume contraction and hypovolemia (but may not if water excess) * Increased intracellular water; edema * Brain cell swelling, irritability, depression, confusion * Systemic cellular edema, including weakness, anorexia nausea, and diarrhea * Edema | >155 meq/L| * Excessive hypertonic salt solutions * IV hypertonic sodium * Saline-induced abortions * Selected infant formulas * Hyperaldosteronism * Cushing syndrome| Hypervolemia: * Weight gain * binding pulse * increased BP * edema * venous distentionNeuromuscular: * muscle weakness * seizuresIntracellular dehydration * thirst * fever * decreased urine output * shrinkage of brain cells * confusion * coma * cerebral hemorrhage| Potassium (K+)| <3.0 meq/L| * ECF hypokalemia * Gastrointestinal and renal disorders * Diarrhea * Vomiting * Diuretic use| * Carbohydrate metabolism * Decrease ablility to urinate * Neuromuscular and cardiac effects * Weak skeletal muscles * Smooth muscle atony * Cardiac dysrhythmias| >6.0 meq/L| * increased intake * decreased renal excretion * insulin deficiency * cell trauma * increase of K movement to ECF | * Mild * Muscle weakness * Paralysis * Arrhythmias * Increase neuromuscular irritability * Tingling of lips or fingers * Restlessness * Intestinal cramping * diarrhea * Severe * cell unable to repolarize * muscle weakness * loss of muscle tone * flaccid paralysis| Chloride (Cl-)| | | | | | |

Calcium (Ca+)| <6.5 mg/dL| * inadequate intestinal absorption * deposition of ionized Ca into bone of soft tissue * blood administration or decrease in PTH and vit D|...
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