Electricity Demand and Supply Pakistan

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Electricity load-shedding in Pakistan is one of the biggest domestic problems faced by the country. Along with the problems that the power shortage brings for the society as a whole and for the inhabitants of the society the power failures seriously curbs the economic potential of the economy. Considering most of the medium and large scale industries of Pakistan depend on machinery that is run by electricity they are heavily dependent on the electricity supply, with the electricity supply cut their production capacity decreases dramatically as well. Since most of Pakistani manufacturing industries lack the self generation ability hence this power outage is even more harmful to their business. So eventually what ends up happening is that along with creating general distress among the public this power shortage reduces the production capacity of the firms and hence reduces the aggregate supply. Aggregate supply can be defined as the total supply of goods and services that firms in a national economy plan on selling during a specific time period. It is the total amount of goods and services that firms are willing to sell at a given price level in an economy. It is the total amount of goods and services that firms are willing to sell at a given price level in an economy. In the long run, the aggregate-supply curve is assumed to be vertical In the short run, the aggregate-supply curve is assumed to be upward sloping SRAS (Short run aggregate demand) shows total planned output when prices in the economy can change but the prices and productivity of all factor inputs e.g. wage rates and the state of technology are assumed to be held constant. LRAS (Long run aggregate supply) shows total planned output when both prices and average wage rates can change – it is a measure of a country’s potential output and the concept is linked strongly to that of the production possibility frontier The SRAS and LRAS can be graphically represented as follows:

SRAS

LRAS

Now what happens is that firms will have to cut down their production process in order to effectively meet the costs incurred or it will come to a position of losses. The cutting down of the production process means decreasing the supply of the firm. As a firm produces lesser than it did before, fewer workers will be needed because the excess labor has been made redundant since fewer employees are now needed to produce lesser output. Moreover, the firm can no longer afford to employ as many workers as it did before. Hence this will eventually give rise to over the course of time as many workers have will have to be laid off in industries due to low activity. This will invariably decrease the total consumption of the population because as the unemployment increases the purchasing power of the people also falls. They are now earning fewer wages and the income effect will lead to a drastic decrease in the consumption. Consumption is one of the major contributors in the aggregate demand function. We define aggregate demand as the total demand for all goods and services produced in the economy at a given time and price level. It is the amount of goods and services in the economy that will be produced at all possible price levels. The aggregate demand is usually described as a linear sum of four separable demand sources.[3]

Where:

C = Consumption
I = Investment
G = Government Spending
(X-M) = Net Exports – Net Imports

The graph for AD is as follows:

It is often cited that the aggregate demand curve is downward sloping because at lower price levels a greater quantity is demanded. While this is correct at the microeconomic, single good level, at the aggregate level this is incorrect. The aggregate demand curve is in fact downward sloping as a result of the Pigou’s wealth effect. Pigou effect is an economics term that refers to the stimulation of output and employment caused by increasing consumption due to a rise in real balances of wealth,...
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